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- The upper limb: the ventral tissue serves as the site for the development of the flexor group of the shoulder muscles and the entire musculature of the palmar side of the forearm and palm.
- The lower limb (thigh): the ventral tissue provides all the muscles of the anterior surface, the extensors.
- The lower limb (tibia): due to the pronator turn, the ventral tissue turns into the back and the sole; these muscles are flexors (Iannotti and Parker 19).
- The upper limb: the dorsal tissue develops the muscles of the back of the shoulder and the rear (extensor) side of the forearm and hand.
- The lower limb (thigh): develops the muscles of the back of the thigh; the flexors.
- The lower limb (tibia): located on the front side, the extensor group (Iannotti and Parker 19).
Pectoral Girdle vs. Pelvic Girdle
- Both girdles support the limbs, yet the pelvis has a more rigid structure (Scheumann 100).
- Superficial muscles of the pectoral girdle:
- Anterior extensors – pectoralis minor (pulls the shoulder blade, raises the ribs) and serratus anterior (pulls the scapula, performs rotational movement around the sagittal axis).
- Posterior extensors – trapezius (pulls the humeral girdle), levator scapulae (pulls the scapula), rhombus (pulls the scapula when contracting medially and upwards).
- The pelvic girdle is almost immovably articulated with the sacral spine, so there are no muscles that set it in motion; muscles located in the pelvic girdle move the leg in the hip joint and the spine.
- The pelvic muscles are more developed in humans due to the upright manner of walking; they ensure balance.
- Ventral group: iliopsoas (flexes the hip in the hip joint, rotates it outward, tilts the trunk forward).
- Dorsal group: gluteus maximus (unbends the thigh, rotates it outward, unbends the trunk), gluteus medius (pulls the hip, turns the thigh inward and outward).
Shoulder Girdle vs. Thigh Muscles
- The muscles of the thigh perform static and dynamic functions when standing and walking.
- Having a large mass and considerable length, they can develop great strength, acting on both the hip and knee joints.
- The anterior group (hip flexors): quadrice psfemoris, sartorius.
- The medial group: adductors – lead, bend, and rotate the hip.
- The posterior group (thigh extensors): hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus).
- Muscles of the free upper limb act mainly on the elbow joint, support movement around the frontal axis.
- Ventral group (flexors): Biceps.
- Dorsal group (extensors): Triceps.
- The muscles that attach to the scapula (deltoid, teres major and minor, etc.) not only set it in motion − with simultaneous contraction of antagonistic muscle groups, but they also fix the scapula (Hartwig 357).
Forearm vs. Tibia Muscles
- Most of the muscles of the forearm are multiarticular since they act on several joints: ulnar, radicular, radiocarpal, and distal joints of the hand and fingers (MacLester and St. Pierre 329).
- Muscles of the forearm are divided into anterior/flexor – flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, – and posterior/extensors – extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi ulnaris.
- Most of the ventral muscles start at the medial epicondyle of the shoulder and fascia of the forearm, and the muscles of the posterior group originate from the lateral epicondyle and also from the fascia of the forearm.
- Muscles of the shin, like the muscles of the hip and pelvic girdle, are relatively well developed because they are exposed to a load due to the upright walking, supporting-motor function of the lower limb; the muscles influence the knee, ankle and foot joints.
- Anterior: tibialis anterior – unbends and supins the foot, tilts the tibia forward.
- Lateral: peroneus longus – flexes the foot, raises its lateral edge, strengthens the transverse arch.
- Posterior group: gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialisposterior – bend, lead, and supinate the foot.
Hartwig, Walter Carl. Fundamental anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
Iannotti, Joseph P., and Richard Parker. The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Volume 6. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013.
MacLester, John, and Peter St. Pierre. Applied biomechanics: concepts and connections. Thomson Wadsworth, 2014.
Scheumann, Donald W. The Balanced Body: A Guide to Deep Tissue and Neuromuscular Therapy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.