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Cell culture is used through removing cells from organisms for being studied in an artificial environment to present model systems and examine cell biochemistry.
- Centrifugation is used for separating particles from a certain solution in a liquid medium with reference to their shape, size, or density, among other factors.
- CRISPR is applied for editing genomes through changing DNA sequences and altering the functions of genes.
- DNA ligation is utilized for joining DNA parts, generating a phosphodiester bond.
- Gel electrophoresis is applied for separating DNA, RNA, as well as proteins, referring to their molecule size.
- Light microscopy is used for providing three-dimensional images of cells and other organisms.
- Hemocytometer allows for counting a particular number of cells observed in a solution.
- Molecular cloning is applied for adding recombinant DNA molecules (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) to plasmids and viral vectors to make copies of DNA parts.
- Organoid tissue modeling is used to provide a realistic model of the in vivo spatial organization of the tissue with a focus on cellular/extracellular environments.
- PCR is utilized to make an extremely large number of DNA sample copies.
- Restriction enzyme digestion is necessary to support molecular cloning and checking the plasmid identity.
- RNAi is applied for the purpose of gene suppression.
- Sequencing is for identifying a sequence of nucleotides in a DNA fragment.
- Transformation is for changing a cell after uptakes and incorporation processes when introducing a plasmid into bacteria.
Polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be viewed as the most important technique in biology because it allows for quickly producing millions of copies of the required DNA sample in order to conduct numerous studies (Freeman, 2017). PCR allows for utilizing a small DNA sample to conduct as many tests and examinations as necessary.
Chromatography is applied for separating a certain mixture and purifying different types of compounds.
- Electron microscopy is used for taking high-resolution images of various biological specimens.
- ELISA is for determining and counting proteins (most often), antibodies, hormones, as well as peptides.
Freeman, S. (2017). Biological science (6th ed.). Pearson Education.