What are some common errors in performing steep turns?
It is imperative to mention that individuals make several mistakes related to steep turns during the process of training that is quite common. First of all, the lack of coordination is particularly problematic and can lead to severe complications. The ability to maintain correct altitude levels when making turns is critical. Also, some forget to scan the area to evaluate the traffic. Power management is another factor that can be rather problematic most of the time, and recovery should not be started too early. Inability to control airspeed is also unacceptable, and it is reasonable to pay close attention to such aspects as excessive pitch (Federal Aviation Administration, 2004).
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How do the human eyes adapt to darkness?
The understanding of the way human eyes may adapt to particular conditions is vital for professionals in the airline industry because it helps to come up with solutions to problems and prevent incidents. Sensitivity to light can be quite problematic because it may be hard to read aeronautical charts. It occurs when an individual is exposed to darkness for close to thirty minutes, but the process is much faster when dim lighting is involved (Federal Aviation Administration, 2008).
It may be necessary to reach this condition under several consequences, but it is not advised most of the time because it affects the ability to focus on the objects. Appropriate cockpit lighting is required to ensure that the pilot may utilize aircraft instruments. It is crucial to devote attention to the scanning procedure to enhance the ability to see in the dark. Accurate interpretation of color is vital, and it is one of the reasons white lights are preferred over red ones (Gibb & Gray, 2016).
What are the functions of flaps?
The primary purpose of flaps is to ensure that a pilot can control the wing lift when it is necessary. The reduction in the minimum safe speed is rather significant, and it also affects stalling. The type of aircraft is crucial in such cases, and pitch angle may be reduced in some cases. It is possible to take advantage of this fact to enhance the view of a particular area. The pilot may retract them when it is necessary because they may lead to excessive drag. They are mostly used when the pilot prepares for the takeoff and before airliners land (Gudmundsson, 2013).
Explain the meaning of VMC (velocity minimum control)?
The velocity of minimum control (VMC) can be described as the dangerous range of speed that may cause the pilot to lose control of an aircraft if it is impossible to operate the engine and several conditions are present. First of all, the full power of one of the engines may be quite problematic because of the asymmetric thrust that may lead to adverse yaw. Also, the current location of the center of gravity plays a vital role, and the pitch stability can be affected if it is located at a rearward (Swatton, 2011). The position of flaps should not be disregarded because an increase in drag associated with takeoff will reduce thrust. A pilot should monitor all the available indicators to determine VMC encounters and take appropriate measures to prevent its occurrence (Federal Aviation Administration, 2008).
What is the yaw damper?
A yaw damper can be defined as an instrument available on many types of airliners, and its primary purpose is to influence the combination of the yaw rotation and rolling oscillation, which is also known as the Dutch roll motion. Particular rates are measured with the use of sensors, and a processor delivers the signals to the motor. The equipment is mostly used to enhance the experience of passengers. Also, it is a vital part for some airliners that helps to improve overall stability levels, and it is possible to pass certification (Allerton, 2009).
Explain how to perform a crosswind landing
It is necessary to mention that the process of crosswind landing can be rather complicated most of the time. Several vital aspects and indicators should be taken into account. Two approaches are suggested, and the wing-low technique is recommended most of the time because the other one requires enormous experience and training. The professional must ensure that the heading of the aircraft is aligned with the center of the airstrip. Also, it is paramount to keep track of the indicators related to the drift. The upwind wing needs to be lowered to perform drift correction without complications, and the amount depends on available figures. Rudder pressure also needs to be applied to ensure that the airplane does not turn, and the longitudinal axis is not affected (Federal Aviation Administration, 2004).
What is a split shaft/free turbine engine?
It is necessary to understand that the difference between a fixed shaft engine and a free power engine is rather significant. The location of the propeller is not the same, and it is not as close to the compressor and standard engine turbine. Torque is increased when the speed of the turbine is lowered because the rate at which the gas is generated is independent. Such engines have various applications and are valued because of their flexibility. One of its benefits is it is possible to change the governing revolutions per minute (RPM) of a particular propeller, and it is not affected by the RPM of the central engine. It is possible to run it at the highest possible speed to produce a continuous flow of the gas, and the level of efficiency is rather high (Federal Aviation Administration, 2004).
What is a stabilized approach?
A stabilized approach is a set of criteria developed by a particular airline company that regulates various aspects related to stabilization height and guarantees high levels of safety. Such factors as appropriate flight path, landing configuration, sink rate, and others are monitored. A lot of attention is devoted to checklists and briefings, and they are essential for all the operations. A go-around needs to be performed in case the approach is not viewed as stabilized to avoid severe consequences. Pilots should be provided with sufficient time for planning and must not overwork to prevent such problems (Dekker, 2014). The process of landing is of utmost importance, and a pilot may deal with penalties if the stabilized approach is not utilized (Dulin, 2008).
What causes a tailwheel aircraft to enter a ground loop?
It is necessary to understand that a ground loop can be described as a fast rotation of an aircraft at the yaw rate. The loss of stability can be quite problematic and should be taken into account. The issue may affect tailwheel aircraft at nearly every speed. The nose must be kept straight to ensure that the direction of the airplane is the same as its destination. The primary reason is the unique location of the center of gravity towards the central landing gear, and it may lead to excessive force on the wheels (Gibb & Gray, 2016). It is appropriate to avoid swerving when lending to prevent the wheel from swinging.
Federal Aviation Administration. (2004). Airplane flying handbook (FAA-H-8083-3A). Oklahoma City, OK: Skyhorse Publishing.
Federal Aviation Administration. (2008). Airplane pilot’s handbook of aeronautical knowledge. Oklahoma City, OK: AAR Distribution.
Gibb, R, & Gray, R. (2016). Aviation visual perception: Research, misperception and mishaps. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gudmundsson, S. (2013). General aviation aircraft design: Applied methods and procedures. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Allerton, D. (2009). Principles of flight stimulation. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Swatton, P. J. (2011). Principles of flight for pilots. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Dekker, S. (2014). Safety differently: Human factors for a new era (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Dulin, J. (2008). Contact flying. Crane, MO: Lulu Press.