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Brief Political Ideologies Research Paper


Modern Liberalism

The ideology of modern liberalism is a recent thought which has been developed by borrowing views and ideas from other theories to form a huge body of ideology from the works of renounced scholars and philosophers such as Theodore Roosevelt, J.F Kennedy, Woodrow Wilson and Lyndon Johnson.

These people came up with powerful theories which have been incorporated together to form the ideology of modern liberalism. This ideology addresses issues like government entitlements like health care, education, abortion, voting and gay rights. Modern liberalism borrows ideas from several sources.

According to the works of Roskin (2009) the modern liberation ideology combines both social liberalism and progressivism to meet the needs of the society and the economy. It is therefore the duty of the federal government to ensure that high level of employment are maintained, to oversee the life and labor standards of its citizens as well as establishing universal social security patterns and to regulate business competition methods within the state (Roskin, 2009).

Arthur Schlesinger in 1956 stated that the United States encompasses a laissez-faire and government form which aimed at achieving equal opportunities for every person, but the means employed to achieve this vary under different circumstances. He also pointed out that the concept liberalism has varying interpretations as its application is different in various parts of the globe.

In Europe, it is referred to as classical liberalism, whereby it is characterized by features of restricted government and laissez-faire economy (Heywood, 1998). American liberalists are described as receptive to change and new ideas as they accept ideas from science such as evolution that are by conservatives (Roskin, 2009).

Liberalism is against socialism, the ownership of distribution and ownership means, as they belief that political opposition basses and freedom cannot survive if all power was vested on the state. If the there can be obtained equal and wide variety of opportunities got from mixed enterprises, there would be no need to have oppressing and rigid bureaucracy. They argue further that if the available markets were regulated efficiently there could be no need for the central control and the top-down programs because they can offer better solutions.

According to the argument which was presented by Paul Krugman, there should be a high degree of efficiency in state owned corporations such as health, education, security and so on. He also supported the monetary policy, saying it approaches the policy of stabilization, which is to give demand in a way it does not disrupt resource allocation. Thomas Friedman was in unison with these ideas especially the one regarding to free trade.

He believed that through its application, the gap between the rich and the poor will decrease. He believed that the role of the state is to act as a major splitting point among liberalist. Defining the state’s growth has significant importance to modern liberalism. Liberal constitutions create constraints on power of a public official, government branch and the whole state as well (Roskin, 2009).

According to the theory of liberal philosophy, there exist five different categories of morality. The first category is concerned with fairness and promotion mainly emphasizing on empathy. The second category is concerned with helping the needy and nurturing the spirit of good among all the individuals in the society.

The third category is concerned with the protection of those people who are defenseless. The fourth category is concerned with the fulfillment of one`s desires in life by achieving his/her objectives in life and living life to the fullest. The fifth category is concerned with self caring, an important ideology since this is where the foundation of caring for others is built on (Schlesinger, 1956).


Fascism is a political ideology where leadership of a state is vested under one individual or a group of individuals. This ideology of was founded during the First World War in Italy by leaders of trade unions together with political leaders to form the political right wing. Fascists feel like the economic, social and political sectors of a state should be organized in a corporatist manner.

Under fascism, the government system is characterized by having a tyrant as the President, use of fear in order to undermine opposition in all sector of the Economy. It has heavily borrowed for the social ideologies that were present during the French Revolution as well as the slogan “Equality, Liberty, and Fraternity”.

The ideology believes that a nation should be viewed as one huge family under a central leadership. The society should have a common feature of identification and have love for their nation to the extent that they can go to war to protect their country.

Democracy is viewed as a setback to social and economic development of the society. Under this system all of the important sectors of the economy are owned by the state. The state makes all the laws and in most cases it cannot be questioned on the decisions it makes.

Armed violence and combat are the main elements in the running of government affairs which aim at instilling discipline and shaping the character of citizens with the help of the army. According to fascists war, violence and aggression is viewed as means of creating the spirit of togetherness among the citizens of the nation and at the same time they gain respect from other nations. They argue that the state should create and maintain a strong hold on its citizens (Roskin, 2009).

Fascism does not embrace equity, rationalism or the right to own property by individuals. They are against liberalism since they feel that it mainly concentrates on economic development. This ideology is also against the concept of social stratification into classes since individuals who are stable economically might become the political leaders of the society even though they are not eligible for that position.

Leadership should only fall in the hand of the elite people in the military who will rule with a strong hand, maintain the sovereignty of the state and organize the factors of production in the best way possible to maximize production of goods and services within the country (Schlesinger, 1956).


Modern Liberalism would suit the United States government in the various realms that exist in the society. Views from this ideology that are essential in attaining and maintaining high standard political, social and economic aspects of the nation should be adopted by the policy makers of the government.

Liberalism has proved to be very adaptive to the rapidly progressive world. The United States government has citizens that are of diverse racial origins, and to integrate them into one unified population; it needs to borrow some concepts from the ideology of liberalism. The policy of democracy that is the core principle of the government is addressed as a major aspect of liberalism. It is best for the government not to undermine its principles that it stands for.


Heywood, A. (1998). Political Ideologies. An Introduction. Houndmills. Macmillan Press. Pp54-93.

Roskin, G. Cord, L. Medeiros, A. James. J & Walter .S. (2009). Political Science. An Introduction (11th Ed.). New York. Longman

Schlesinger, A. (1956). Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans: The Politics of Hope. Boston: Riverside Press

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