The aim of this research study is to establish how the principles of ethics and sustainability can be applied in the fashion industry. The research is a case study of Carmina Campus, which is a renowned fashion company that uses the ethical fashion business model to incorporate the principles of ethics and sustainability in its operations. We investigated the company’s operations and business processes to understand how it incorporated these principles into its business strategy. Using a triangulation technique, we sought data from three sources – historical data, key informants, and personal observation. Using semi-structured questionnaires, we gathered the views of 50 respondents who worked in the company. We also interviewed some of them to understand the company’s pricing, distribution, and market strategies.
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Our key informants said they had confidence in the company’s sustainable and ethical business practices. They also showed that the company’s success was underpinned by a strong focus on ethical business. After merging these views with secondary data findings, we found that part of Carmina Campus’s success hinged on the company’s leadership, spearheaded by its founder, Ilaria Venturini Fendi, who provides direction for the enterprise. We also found that Carmina Campus’s business strategy exemplifies the three pillars of sustainability – environmental sustainability, social sustainability, and economic sustainability. It also focuses on recycling as a core business practice. Comprehensively, the business has proven that fashion companies can embrace the concept of ethical fashion without compromising any other aspect of their operations.
Findings and Analysis
As mentioned in the methodology section, we used the triangulation technique to gather relevant data to meet our research objective – to establish how the principles of ethics and sustainability could be successfully applied in the fashion industry. Our triangulation technique incorporated the collection of research information from historical data, key informants, and personal observation. In this chapter, these three sources of research data are highlighted as survey findings (key informants), interview findings (personal observation), and historical data findings. The information we obtained from these three sources of information appears below.
The researcher carried out the survey through self-administered questionnaires sent to 50 key informants who worked at Carmina Campus. The questionnaire contained instruments for rating the respondents’ views regarding the sustainability practices of Carmina Campus. The 7-point Likert scale was used to rate the respondents’ views using measures of “strongly disagree,” “agree,” “slightly disagree,” “neither agree nor disagree,” “slightly agree,” “agree,” and “strongly agree.” The main groups of employees surveyed included managers, supervisors, and junior employees.
As mentioned above, we managed to get the views of 50 respondents. Seven of them said they were managers, while 13 of them said they were supervisors. The rest were junior employees. The pie chart below shows this distribution
All the managers had a master’s degree, while ten of the supervisors said they had a bachelor’s degree in different fields of business and management. Three of the supervisors said they also held a master’s degree, while all the junior workers were high school graduates, except for four males who said they had a bachelor’s degree in different fields of art. The table below shows the distribution of their academic qualifications.
Table 1: Distribution of Academic Qualifications
|Employee Group||High School |
|Bachelor’s degree||Master’s degree||PHD|
(Source: Developed by Author)
All the respondents said they were strongly aware of Carmina Campus’s sustainability projects. They also responded positively to participating in the company’s sustainability activities, except for three junior employees who said they had not participated in the company’s sustainability programs. Nonetheless, all the respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that the company’s sustainability programs were effective.
When asked to state their views regarding the focus of the company’s sustainability efforts, the respondents were split between the focus on efficiency and the focus on social issues. Only 33% of the respondents said the company focused on efficiency issues, while 57% said it focused on social issues. In the same breadth of analysis, 10% of the respondents believed that the sustainability focus was on current economic conditions, scientific issues, and “others.”
When asked to rate the company’s terms of service and business operation metrics (relative to prices and quality), the respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” with the fact that the policies were favorable. Only three respondents said they held neutral views regarding this issue. When asked to state whether the company’s success was based on its sustainability programs, the respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” with this view. In fact, 70% of the respondents strongly agreed with this fact. Most of the respondents also said they agreed with the contents of the company’s sustainability programs, with only 7% saying they held neutral views regarding this view.
The last question in the questionnaire sought to find out if the respondents had any recommendations regarding how the company could improve its sustainability programs. Price reduction emerged as a core theme because many of the respondents felt that some of the company’s products were highly-priced. The market expansion also emerged as another theme because some employees felt that the company could expand its social activities beyond a few marginalized communities in developing nations. Five employees said the company could improve the terms of employment for its workers as one strategy that could boost the effectiveness of the existing sustainability programs.
In this section of the study, the researcher asked six key research questions to investigate Carmina Campus’s business operations. The first question sought to define the target customer for the company. The second and third questions sought to investigate where Carmina Campus products are sold, distributed, and at what price? Finally, the last question asked in the interview sought to elaborate on what factors (besides the cost of raw materials) go into the pricing of Carmina Campus’s products. The responses appear below.
Target Market: Regarding the type of customer target for Carmina Campus, the respondents said that the typical customer was above 20 years old. Thus, they believed that the target market is a blend of the old and the young because Carmina Campus has different products that appeal to these different age criteria. Here, the respondents believed that the customers are usually an upper middle class or affluent because the product pricing criteria for most of the company’s products is premium. Although we will discuss the company’s pricing strategy (in detail) in the subsequent section, the respondents said the typical customer for Carmina Campus is female.
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However, they also clarified that men also form a small percentage of the market because some male patrons often buy gifts for their girlfriends, wives, sisters, aunts, and other female friends. These customers are also usually well educated and care for the environment. Consequently, they buy unique products that not only allow them to express affection for their loved ones, but also for the environment. A key part of the target market also appreciates the rarity of Carmina Campus products and marvel at the design patterns associated with them. Stated differently, the unique (unconventional) approach to fashion (pursued by Carmina Campus) makes its products unique and highly appreciated by different audiences.
Pricing: Employees of Carmina Campus said that their lowest priced product starts from 150 Euros. However, most of the products fall within the price bracket of 400 Euros to 800 Euros. Some products could be in excess of 1,500 Euros, but they mostly require complicated or time-consuming manufacturing processes. The “bags of the pyramid” and “bricks collections” are some products that fetch this type of price. Unique pieces of furniture also fall within this price range.
When asked to state the price considerations (besides raw materials) the company considers when setting these prices, the respondents said that the serial production process is the main price consideration, besides raw materials. They also pointed out that the quality of manufacturing is a significant cost driver. One respondent further pointed out the difficulty associated with replicating products because no two items can be the same, even if they are made with the same raw materials. Part of the problem rests in the fact that the company often uses reused materials. Furthermore, every bag is often made as a prototype. Cumulatively, these factors add to the company’s cost structure.
These dynamics prompted the employees to argue that Carmina Campus is an eco-luxury brand. Thus, most of the employees interviewed claimed the dynamics of the manufacturing process mostly influence the company’s pricing strategy. Additionally, some employees pointed out that the highly skilled nature of its artists and designers (in Italy) increased the cost of the products. Furthermore, they said it is difficult to make quality products from materials that were not designed for that purpose in the first place.
Testing the materials and creating hand-written tags on each one of them are also unique processes that add to the products’ cost structures. These processes limit the company’s ability to join the ranks of big industry players because of the difficulty associated with automation and commercialization of the products. In this regard, many employees believe the brand would remain niche because it is conceptual and sophisticated. Nonetheless, most of them agreed that the company remains open to players and people who are willing to pitch in new ideas about creativity and environmental sustainability.
Distribution and Sales: When asked to explain the company’s distribution and sales structure, the respondents said that Japan is the company’s main market. Within this market, Carmina Campus distributes and sells its products through a partnership agreement it has with a leading store called Takashimaya Department Store. The company’s products are available in boutiques and multidepartment stores that mostly specialize in high fashion apparel. Some of the main ones include 10 Corso Como and Biffi Milan, and Linda Dresner Michigan (among others).
Historical Data Findings
A review of historical data findings provided us with adequate information for our secondary data analysis. In this review, we collected data from different sources of information, including company statements, industry reports and video clips about the company. These sources of information helped to clarify the company’s vision, business model, sustainability concept, and collaborative strategies. The findings appear below.
Vision: The company’s founder and creative director, Ilaria Venturini Fendi, developed the principles of sustainability and ethical manufacturing at Carmina Campus. She started by converting a piece of land outside Rome into an organic farm where she made different types of fashion items using sustainable products. According to CCW (2017), she was driven by a vision of restoration, which was hinged on the concepts of bio architecture and landscape safeguarding. She greatly infused these models of manufacturing into Carmina Campus, which now embodies the concepts of ethical sustainability and fashion.
The process has been successful through a blend of unique concepts that span three main pillars of beauty, luxury and ethical responsibility (mostly associated with the customers). Part of the company’s vision has been empowering marginalized communities in developing countries. For example, it has been engaged in capacity building in Kenya, where it has worked with various artists in the East African Country (Ethical Fashion Initiative, 2016). Generally, the company’s vision has been to promote eco-friendliness through environmental preservation.
Business Model: Carmina Campus mostly prides itself in being a pioneer in the implementation of the ethical fashion business model, which connects different communities of artists in the developing world with global powerhouses around the world (EFI, 2017). Both parties share knowledge regarding how to conserve the environment through the creation of sustainable products through creative designs and the use of sustainable materials (EFI, 2017). This business model allows artisans in developing nations to create unique products that are distributed by global brands around the world. Using this framework Carmina Campus has created a business support infrastructure that uses centralized production hubs in Italy and Africa to create quality fashion items.
Sustainability Concept: From our review, we found that the company’s sustainability concept hinged on “reusing.” Its products were mostly designed from raw materials that were once discarded as waste. For example, the company uses disposed garbage bags to design and produce magnificent bags for women (CCW, 2017).
According to the company’s website, most of the materials used to design the products are either end-of line materials or defective raw materials that did not meet quality standards in different industries where they were taken from. Scraps and off-cuts of whatever kind also fit the criteria of materials used by the company to make its products. Italian and African designers give these materials “a new lease of life” by designing some of the most invaluable and impeccable products through a rigorous and well tested manufacturing process (CCW, 2017). Some of these products include jewelry, bags and unique furniture.
Collaboration: Most of Carmina Campus’s activities happen with the full collaboration of external partners such as the United Nations and government institutions (such as the Italian prison service). For example, in Africa, the company has had a long-standing collaboration with the UN and the International Trade Center, which facilitate the availability and distribution of skilled labor, and raw materials that the company uses to make its products (CCW, 2017). Carmina Campus also has a history of collaborating with Italian prison officials who participate in rehabilitation programs.
The Italian Ministry of Justice often supervises these programs (CCW, 2017). The company is also willing to work with public institutions, private organizations and non-governmental organizations that have an innovative view about the creative and ethical procedures adopted by the company. Within this framework, the company has fostered partnerships with different companies, including BMW, Campari, and Vibram, just to mention a few (CCW, 2017).
These collaborative efforts have greatly supported several local communities in Africa and enhanced the company’s social and economic footprint around the continent. For example, a 2015 document prepared by the Ethical Fashion Initiative (2016) to assess the impact of the company on local communities in Kenya found that the company had made a tangible impact on local communities considering many workers had reported significant increases in their income because of Carmina Campus’s programs. Although income was dependent on skill level, the report showed that, for most workers, it increased between 1.1 and 4.6 times (Ethical Fashion Initiative, 2016).
In fact, 72.3% of the artisans sampled said their incomes significantly increased because of their involvement in Carmina Campus programs (Ethical Fashion Initiative, 2016). The report also showed a skill outflow from artisans who received training under the Carmina Campus program. For example, 59% of the artisans made unique and personal products and sold them for their economic gain. They used the skills they learned from Carmina Campus to do so. Collectively, these findings show that the company has been successful in creating a positive social, economic, and environmental impact in the world.
Based on the findings we came up with from this study, we find that sustainability is at the core of Carmina Campus’s activities. The survey findings revealed that the company’s activities were successful and responsible for the company’s enviable standing in the fashion industry. Since sustainability is a general concept used by different companies operating in different industries, we find that Carmina Campus has mostly focused on recycling, as opposed to reuse, or reduce, which are other key pillars of environmentally responsible consumer behavior.
The three ‘R’s mentioned above are mostly used in waste management and have continued to characterize the activities of environmentally responsible companies around the world (City of Patterson, 2016). The activities of Carmina Campus also fit the same description, but there is a bias towards recycling more than the other ‘R’s mentioned.
The survey findings also point out that the company has a strong ethical focus, which hinges on the need to support impoverished communities by showing them a way to make a living. This fact also emerged in our secondary data findings because we found out that the company operates different hubs where local communities design new products that are shipped to overseas markets as semi-processed goods.
More importantly, we found evidence of such activities in Nairobi, Kenya, where the company has employed several local artisans to design different fashion apparel using locally available materials. The use of garbage bags and other recyclable materials also support the assertion that Carmina Campus mostly relies on recycling for its sustainable practices. However, the focus on incorporating community efforts in the manufacturing process demonstrates the company’s commitment towards promoting ethical practices in its business model. In this regard, we see that the company strongly values its sustainability and ethical practices.
One curious observation made in the findings is the failure of the employees to mention developing communities as part of the company’s manufacturing process. This fact only emerged in the survey findings and in the secondary data analysis. This omission could have happened because of the failure of some employees to understand the full scope of the company’s operations. Nonetheless, based on the analysis we derived from the three sources of information, we found that Carmina Campus’s business model augurs well with the main goals of sustainable development as outlined in the 2005 World Summit on Social development, which pointed out that economy, society, and the environment were the three main pillars of sustainability (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2016).
According to the diagram above, we find that most companies, which subscribe to the three pillars of sustainability are not only bearable and equitable, but viable as well. These are some of the characteristics associated with Carmina Campus because it subscribes to the aforementioned pillars of sustainability. On the social front, we have found evidence that the company operates several programs in Africa to build capacity for the development of unique fashion apparel that are sold in overseas markets. In this regard, the company supports local communities.
Indeed, as the Ethical Fashion Initiative (2016) observes, the company has existing programs in Africa, where marginalized women use Maasai fabrics (a fabric associated with an indigenous community in East Africa) to make handbags, which are later exported to Italy and processed some more before being distributed to the market. If we look at the concept of environmental sustainability, we again find that the focus on recycling is central to the company’s operations. Concisely, most of the company’s products are made from recycled materials. Relative to this assertion, Hearst (2012) says that the company’s founder “uses what she finds, and her bags have been known to incorporate mountain ropes, sailing lines, outdoor curtains, and even airplane cushioning!” (p. 1).
Generally, the findings derived in this paper correspond to existing information about Carmina Campus’s business activities that we found in the literature review section because the company’s business practices outlined in this section correspond to the employees’ views on the same. However, one issue of concern that we noted in our literature review and not in our findings section was the time-consuming nature and the complexity associated with the company’s manufacturing process. These concerns were possibly captured in the views of some employees who felt that they were not satisfied with the company’s production process (this question was asked in the questionnaire, as a matter of company efficiency).
Underpinning the company’s success could be a knack for experimentation and creativity, which has been a mantra in the organization. The secondary data analysis and the survey sections of the findings chapter also affirmed this fact because we found that the company was open to new ideas on creativity to improve its business processes. Through experimentation and creativity, Carmina campus has made some of the rarest products, which fetch a premium price in the market.
Therefore, it comes as no surprise that some of our interviewees said most of the company’s products could not be imitated. Similarly, they said that no two products could be identical. The unique production and manufacturing processes associated with each product is largely responsible for this fact. However, the time-consuming nature associated with the process may be problematic for the organization because it would be difficult to scale its operations beyond what it is now. This limitation implies that Carmina campus may remain a niche brand for a long time. Such a strategy would be detrimental to the profitability of the company because it means that it would always remain small, unless it changes its business model to include mass-market operations.
Our interview findings also showed that most employees of Carmina Campus believed that the company was effective and successful in its operations. Based on the nature of the company’s operations and the role of management in making its operations successful, it is difficult to ignore the role of the company’s founder, Ilaria Venturini, in the company’s success. Particularly, the company’s business model is attributed to the vision of the company’s founder because we see that she developed the blueprint for pursuing an ethical and sustainable business model. Without her commitment, the company could not have received the recognition it has enjoyed in the past few years.
Here, it is also difficult to ignore the fact that she has micromanaged most of the company’s operations in Africa and Europe because her presence is everywhere. Indeed, she has visited local communities in Africa, worked with disadvantaged people by sewing with them and looking for suppliers herself who would provide the recyclable raw materials for production. She has used the same micromanagement approach in Europe, where she has looked for land outside Rome, talked to artisans to manufacture the semi-processed products from Africa and arranged for the distribution of the finished merchandise to different markets around the world. This type of micromanagement could be synonymous with fashion businesses that want to use the ethical fashion business model because it is easy for companies to be easily distracted by the motive to make a profit and lose the overarching goal of ethical business practice and sustainability.
Ilaria’s role in Carmina Campus’s success is further reinforced by the fact that she has received notable recognition for her contribution towards sustainability in the fashion industry. For example, she has received several notable international awards for highlighting the power of ethics and sustainability in the global fashion industry. She is also a sought speaker at different fashion events such as the Rio20+ ITC session, which mostly focuses on ethics in fashion and highlights the importance of embracing sustainability in the same industry (CCW, 2017).
Among others, she has also received other awards in the same segment, such as the 2011 award she received as a champion in the “Fashion4Development” segment (CCW, 2017). She has also received awards for excellence in ethical business. These accolades further affirm her contribution towards the success of Carmina Campus and demonstrate that she has been a strong driving force in the company (CCW, 2017). This fact highlights the importance of having a strong management team to make sure that the ethical fashion business model works.
Based on the activities of Carmina Campus, we have established that the company’s business model is the ethical fashion business model. This model marks a radical departure from how fashion brands have traditionally done their business. More importantly, it marks a radical departure from previous development interventions, which failed to recognize the role of the informal sector in the entire international value chain of fashionable products. The ethical fashion business model, pursued by Carmina Campus, connects different micro communities of artisans from different parts of Africa to the global fashion industry chain through different manufacturing and production hubs, such as Nairobi and Italy.
The concepts of ethical responsibility and environmental sustainability underpin the ethical fashion business model pursued by Carmina Campus. Under the social concept of sustainability, this business model allows different communities from developing nations to produce directly for big brands, thereby gaining access to the global supply chain of fashion products, and, by extension, the global market for fashion products. This initiative not only provides them with a platform to showcase their skills, but also with an opportunity to make a living for themselves and their families – an important addition to developing countries, which are often affected by high unemployment levels and the lack of job opportunities.
Indeed, using the ethical fashion business model, artisans can finally find their place in the international value chain of fashion products. Their role in this value chain is firm because the ethical fashion business model continues to respond well to market demand, which is characterized by an increased appreciation for ethically made and environmentally conscious products. The management process of Carmina Campus could shape the future of the fashion industry because a skilled team and managers who are comprised of men and women who have extensive knowledge about the global fashion business oversee it.
In our analysis, we have also found that the ethical fashion business model adopted by Carmina Campus extenuates the characteristics of environmentally conscious behavior in the corporate sector. We have also seen that this business model aligns with the principles of sustainability, which emphasize the importance of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Indeed, the activities of Carmina Campus not only provide a social benefit to communities living in Africa, but also provide a profit that sustains business activities in Italy. The environmental value of the company also emerges from the role of the business in waste minimization because most of the raw materials used to make the company’s fashion apparel are often discarded materials that could have a negative impact on the environment.
The business model pursued by Carmina Campus highlights the vision of the company’s founder, Ilaria, who has found a way to merge her work with environmental values that she knows and lives by. Her experience in the fashion industry fits with the available skill set in Italy that fine-tunes semi-finished products imported from Africa. Using the sustainability philosophy, the company’s founder has brought job enrichment opportunities to different communities in Africa. However, it is important to point out that her ethical business model is not based on sustainability alone, but collaboration and empowerment as well.
This approach is unique because it marks a departure from what traditional western-based companies have been doing in Africa, where they exploit cheap labor in the continent and use it to make a profit for themselves. Carmina Campus does not engage in these unethical practices, as seen from its willingness to engage with global organizations, such as the UN in making sure local communities benefit from its initiatives. Additionally, its collaboration with the International Trade Centre and the World Trade Organization demonstrates its willingness to be transparent.
The activities of Carmina Campus demonstrate how fashion businesses can reengineer their processes to align with today’s pressing needs of environmental sustainability. The findings of this paper also show that the company has embraced and appreciated the importance of acting ethically because all its activities have been designed to magnify this concept. As highlighted in several chapters of this paper, this concept exemplifies the need to “do things the right way.” Carmina Campus understands it by exemplifying all the factors of its business operations that need to magnify this philosophy.
If we look at the concept of sustainability, we find that Carmina campus’s definition of it is pivoted on an enduring and balanced approach to economic development, social progress (of disadvantaged communities in Africa), and environmental responsibility. The main premise of adopting this business mantra is meeting today’s environmental challenges to allow future generations to live a fulfilling life. Undoubtedly, this approach involves taking a long-term view of production and manufacturing processes where companies balance social, environmental, and economic needs.
Based on the analysis we have undertaken in this paper, it is also pertinent to point out that Carmina Campus’s ethical fashion model goes beyond what the law requires of fashion companies, with respect to upholding environmental and labor laws. In this regard, people can see that the company’s sustainable business model goes beyond existing ethical policies.
This attribute has added to the value of the company’s brand. Indeed, it recognizes the need to “do the right thing” by all its stakeholders because the failure to do so could cause serious social and economic damage to the company’s operations and reputation. The failure to stick to its strong ethical policies could also cause environmental damage and possibly negatively affect the communities that depend on the company to earn a living. However, according to the commitment exuded by the company’s founder, it is difficult to fathom a situation where Carmina Campus could deliberately undermine its long-term business reputation and prospects in the process.
The ethical tone that is characteristic of the company clearly comes from the top (and more specifically, from the founder). This is a lesson to would-be fashion companies that want to follow the ethical fashion business model because senior managers and business leaders need to demonstrate their commitment to ethical business and sustainable operations before middle-level and junior employees could do the same.
So far, we have seen that the leadership of Carmina Campus has demonstrated this commitment because all cadres of employees have bought into the sustainability concept (as we have seen through our interview and survey findings). Non-executive members of the organization should be custodians of the business model because it is their duty to ensure that all tenets of the business are aligned with the ethical and sustainable business model.
Throughout this analysis, we find that Carmina Campus has demonstrated that fashion companies can shift their focus from luxury to environmental sustainability and ethical fashion. This new focus does not mean a sacrifice of luxury because Carmina Campus products are still deemed as such. The only difference is that, unlike other fashion brands that have the concept of luxury at the core of their business models, the company has ethical fashion at the core of its operations. This difference can be seen in the difference between the company mission and vision of Carmina campus and other luxury brands in the fashion industry.
The business focus pursued by Carmina Campus has a long-term perspective to business operations, because luxury is a fickle concept in business. Comparatively, the concepts of ethics and sustainability would not go out of fashion. This fact gives Carmina campus a competitive edge over other fashion businesses that do not appreciate the importance of ethical fashion in today’s cutthroat business environment. Most of these businesses fail to recognize the market trends and prevailing consumer behaviors, which are becoming more skewed towards environmental consciousness. Carmina Campus is riding this wave.
Evidence from the literature review section of our study indicates that the success of Carmina Campus could continue for a long time because consumer trends are favorable. Particularly, the increased customer awareness regarding the need for environmental sustainability in fashion is bound to support the company’s success in the next decade.
This is because the evidence collected from the literature review shows that, although many fashion brands in the luxury segment uphold the concept of luxury, few customers are willing to buy into it at the expense of social and environmental awareness. Instead, they want to buy eco-friendly items and support the environmental cause. Carmina Campus has tapped into this growing culture because it is not only giving the customers a luxurious product, but also providing them with an opportunity to contribute towards the environmental and social cause by buying products, which are made with these concepts in mind. This trend is bound to benefit the company in future.
Based on the approach taken by Carmina Campus in solving some of today’s social, economic and social problems, fashion companies that want to adopt the ethical fashion model should have an open-mind to succeed. In other words, they should not only be fixated on the need to comply with existing ethical policies and environmental laws without any regard for other ways that they could benefit from embracing ethical business principles. Indeed, it is important for modern-day businesses to embed the concepts of ethics and sustainability in their business models, strategies, and decision-making processes.
Comprehensively, this research has demonstrated how fashion businesses could infuse the concepts of ethics and sustainability in their business practices. The Carmina Campus case study provides critical details about how the concept of sustainability and ethical production was thought out and how the founder implemented it through a broad network of production and manufacturing processes, spanning different continents. Nonetheless, the findings are mostly representative of the views of Carmina Campus employees.
These views are mostly descriptive. Future research should delve deeper into exploring the reason behind the opinions expressed by the respondents. For example, most of the questions asked in the questionnaire were descriptive, without adequate reasoning to explain why the respondents felt how they did. Future research should fill this research gap and possibly investigate how other fashion brands infuse the concepts of sustainability and ethics in their business model. Nonetheless, based on the findings derived in this paper, we can confidently say that Carmina Campus has not only proved that ethical fashion is not only good for social development, but it is also good business.
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City of Patterson. (2016). Reduce, reuse, & recycle program.
EFI. (2017). Ethical manufacturing.
Ethical Fashion Initiative. (2016). Impact assessment Carmina campus, SS15, Kenya.
Hearst, A. (2012). Sustainable spotlight: Carmina Campus bags.
Rochester Institute of Technology. (2016). Sustainability.