China and Other Colonial Empires
The paper “China and Other Colonial Empires” by Peter Perdue is devoted to the in-depth investigation of China during the Qing dynastys rule and elements that can evidence the imperialistic or colonial character of this state. At the very beginning, the author assumes that the definition of empire is a complex issue because of the multiple factors impacting the development of a state and differences in perspectives on what country can be called by this term (Perdue 85).
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He admits that there is hardly a difference between colonial and imperial as both these words describe similar patterns of power (Perdue 91). Investigating China at that period, Perdue assumes that during the Qing dynasty the country demonstrated all the features of colonial states (97). It had administrative powers in colonized areas, many of them depended on local nobilities, the stated promoted frontier settlement, and finally, China made efforts to exploit conquered areas to acquire new resources (Perdue 98). At the same time, its relations with bordering states also proved the imperial character of the country. In such a way, the authors main idea is that there is no difference between the colonial or imperial mode since both these models demonstrate similar patterns of power.
Qing Colonial Administration in Inner Asia
Nicola Di Cosmo continues cogitations about the given topic. In the article “Qing Colonial Administration in Inner Asia” he discusses the military and civil organization of the state during that period and how it impacted the states further evolution. In Tibet, Central Asia, and Mongolia that were areas colonized by China, the state initiated efficient empire-building processes that presupposed the empowerment of local administration and provision of additional authorities to it (Di Cosmo 289).
The given article and the authors main assumption correlate with the previous work as there is the idea that China was one of the powerful imperial powers of the 18th century because of its policy aimed at the extension of its land and increase of its influence. The success of the countrys long presence in Inner Asian regions can be explained by the efficient approach to distribute governance between local and Chinese authorities to achieve success and guarantee continuous exploitation (Di Cosmo 301). In such a way, both papers assume that China was an imperialistic state with a developed colonial system characterized by the powerful administration on colonized lands that were used to generate benefits and avoid problems with the local population in the future.
Di Cosmo, Nicola. Qing Colonial Administration in Inner Asia. The International History Review, vol. 20, no. 2, 2010, pp. 287-309.
Perdue, Peter C. China and Other Colonial Empires. The Journal of American–East Asian Relations, vol. 16, no. 1, 2009, pp. 85-103.