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Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices Report (Assessment)


Introduction

Every person makes decisions that influence further life and choices made. While choosing an occupation, an individual might experience certain stress and take into account a number of factors or evaluative criteria (hereinafter used in the text to identify the factors influencing the occupational choices of people with different background, ethnicity, and family income as well as personal motives).

In this respect, it is necessary to consider the most common evaluation criteria to analyse the occupational choices for three individuals with regard to their own gender, age, ethnicity, and education.

For instance, “Holland’s theory states that vocational interests are an important expression of personality, and can be used to meaningfully categorise people and work environments” (Barrick, Mount and Gupta 2003, p. 47). This means that each person can be interested in more than one occupation due to the analysis of preferences and personal traits that are in turn grounded on background, experience, education, ethnicity, gender, and other peculiar features.

The list presented below suggests six potential occupations that can be considered similar in terms of certain aspects but have significant number of differences so that people with different occupational interests can choose the one applicable to their preferences. Veterinarian, dentist, journalist, sales manager, teacher, and social worker are the occupations for analysis.

As personal traits mean a lot for choice of the profession, many people experience difficulties due to more than one interest concerning the occupational applicability. So, we shall investigate on the peculiarities of occupational choices for people of different age, ethnicity, and gender as well as personal traits that influence the occupational choices and value of certain criteria. The evaluation criteria will include income, social status, working hours, job security, risk or challenge, and variety.

Decision Matrix

Potential occupations
Evaluation criteria Veterinarian Dentist Journalist Sales manager Teacher Social worker
Income
Social status
Working hours
Job security
Risk/challenge
Variety

The table presented above suggests a list of potential occupations for assessment and a number of evaluation criteria to measure the satisfaction and commitment as they are associated with these professions. The scale will be based on the numbers from one to five given in different cases.

Thus, one will be given when the criterion is of little importance or is not important at all; two will be given if the criterion is still of minor importance but is actually taken into account. Three will be given if the respondent treats the criterion as an integral part of the activity but pays little attention to its value; for example, if a respondent gives three for the activity of teaching in terms of income; this means that the income is an integral part of this activity but it is not as high as for the occupation of a dentist, for instance.

Four will be given if the parameter is of great importance for a respondent and the activity has great variety in terms of this factor; in other words, if four is given the activity of a journalist in terms of working hours, the person engaged in the area of journalism can be freely engaged into this activity using working hours in the way he/she thinks it necessary and most beneficial for the final result such as sensational reportage or something similar.

Respondent One

The first respondent chosen to assess the decision matrix is a female aged 28, white, non-Hispanic, higher education, employed as a teacher of elementary school, not married, have no children. As education is an influential factor that impacts greatly the assessment of evaluation criteria, it is necessary to analyse the importance of these factors for this respondent (hereinafter referred to as Respondent A).

Potential occupations by Respondent A
Evaluation criteria Veterinarian Dentist Journalist Sales manager Teacher Social worker
Income 3 5 4 4 3 3
Social status 3 5 4 4 4 3
Working hours 3 3 4 3 3 2
Job security 5 5 3 4 5 5
Risk/challenge 2 2 4 4 3 3
Variety 2 2 5 4 2 3

The table presented above suggests the scores given by the Respondent A to six potential activities with regard to six evaluation criteria assigned to those activities in this or that way. In other words, the Respondent A thinks the occupation of dentist, veterinarian, teacher, and social worker to be most job-secured while the activities of dentist, veterinarian, and teacher are the ones lacking variety.

As suggested in the study by Murnane, Singer and Willett (1989), the salaries and job opportunities are highly influential for teachers, especially with regard to their educational degree and the level of experience counted in years of work. It is also necessary to indicate that previously the Respondent A identified the evaluation criteria with regard to the way she thinks important for her while choosing the occupation.

Respondent A
Income Social status Working hours Job security Risk /challenge variety
Assessment 4 5 3 4 1 3

Respondent Two

The next respondent for assessment is a male aged 52; he is a Hispanic who is employed as a fireman for 25 years. He is married and has two children who study currently at college. This respondent hereinafter will be referred to as Respondent B.

Respondent B
Income Social status Working hours Job security Risk /challenge variety
Assessment 3 4 3 5 4 4

The answers of this respondent are influenced greatly by his family status and working experience that requires from him a stable job though the risk of the occupation is very important for this person due to the long experience of fighting against the fire. The occupational choice of this person was preconditioned by the performance level and educational achievements (Cole and Barber 2003).

Women, on the contrary, try to achieve more with the help of educational achievements that enable them to attain more in terms of the job opportunities and occupational choice with regard to social status and prestige of the profession (Eccles 1994, p. 586). The next step that should be taken is to ask the Respondent B to assess the potential occupations and the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

Potential occupations by Respondent B
Evaluation criteria Veterinarian Dentist Journalist Sales manager Teacher Social worker
Income 4 5 3 3 2 2
Social status 3 4 2 2 4 3
Working hours 3 3 4 3 3 4
Job security 5 5 3 4 5 5
Risk/challenge 1 1 3 1 1 1
Variety 1 1 5 3 3 3

The table preset above characterises the way the Respondent B treats the activities suggested for assessment in terms of the evaluation criteria such as social status, working hours, variety, job security, income, and risk or challenge imposed by professional duties. In other words, this person thinks the occupations of all suggested activities, except the journalism, dull and boring.

At the same time, it is necessary to mention that the Respondent B thinks these occupations to be characterised with high job security level due to stable engagement and demand for services provided by professionals in these areas.

Respondent Three

The last respondent for this assessment is a female aged 35, black, divorced, no children, employed as a barrister in a private company that operates in this area for a few decades.

It is necessary to mention that the study by Judge and Bretz (1991) supports the idea of organizational culture and its perception by employees as one of the stable factors in the work value and higher assessment of job opportunities in the company. In other words, the respondent hereinafter referred to as Respondent C was highly-influenced by the desire to achieve results with the company that has long traditions and effective performance in the market of barrister services.

Respondent C
Income Social status Working hours Job security Risk /challenge variety
Assessment 5 5 3 4 4 3

As suggested in the table presented above, the Respondent C is driven by such evaluation criteria as income and social status whereas working hours and variety of the job are treated by this individual as integral parts of the job. At the same time, it is necessary to analyse the way the Respondent C assessed the potential activities presented in the very beginning of the test with regard to the evaluation criteria assessed earlier.

Potential occupations by Respondent C
Evaluation criteria Veterinarian Dentist Journalist Sales manager Teacher Social worker
Income 4 5 3 3 3 3
Social status 4 5 3 3 4 4
Working hours 2 2 4 3 2 2
Job security 4 4 2 3 3 3
Risk/challenge 1 1 5 2 1 2
Variety 2 2 4 2 2 2

The Respondent C treats the occupations of dentist and veterinarian to be most payable in terms of income and the activities of dentist, veterinarian, and teacher to be the least risk/challenge imposing. The profession of a journalist is treated by the Respondent C as the most risky or challenging while it is, at the same time, the less secured and one of those with mediocre social status along with the occupation of a sales manager.

Analysis of Data

After analysing the data from the tables with the help of the compensatory decision model, it turned out that respondents fit some occupations suggested as potential professions. In this respect, the calculations were performed with the help of a simple formula:

Ro=WBo,

where Ro – is the overall rating of the occupation, W – is the rating given by the respondent to the evaluation criteria with regard to personal interests and preferences, Bo – is the rating given by the respondent to the potential occupations with regard to its perception due to influences of social environment and background. In this respect, it is necessary to present the data calculated with the help of this formula in terms of every respondent and results received on each occupation.

Respondent A. This respondent would best fit the occupation of a dentist or a sales manager while the occupation of a social worker is the least applicable for the Respondent A:

Veterinarian – 64; dentist – 82; journalist – 75; sales manager – 77; teacher – 70; social worker – 65.

These facts support the idea suggested by Rynes (1989) who managed to trace the relation between the recruitment and post-recruitment consequences. In other words, a person can achieve other features necessary for the position he/she obtains while certain features can be beneficial in other occupational areas. The study by Elrod, Johnson and White (2004) contains evidence of the mathematical nature of decision-making and opportunities to calculate and compare the expected outcomes and the real results of certain decisions.

Respondent B. For the Respondent B the most appropriate occupation is the journalism because it involves a higher level of risk than all other occupational areas presented for the assessment. The least applicable occupations for the Respondent B are the activity of a veterinarian and sales manager:

Veterinarian – 66; dentist – 73; journalist – 76; sales manager – 62; teacher – 72; social worker – 71.

As you can see, the features and experience of the Respondent B turned out to be applicable to four occupations out of six. This suggests another explanation of the theory presented by Polachek (1981) who argued about the sex differences in occupational choices and further engagement.

Respondent C. It is clear from the results that the Respondent C would not become a teacher, a social worker, a sales manager or a veterinarian. However, there is a high possibility that this person would perform effectively in the area of such occupations as dentistry and journalism:

Veterinarian – 72; dentist – 82; journalist – 82; sales manager – 65; teacher – 63; social worker – 67.

It is possible to assume that two respondents have similar results due to their gender while the Respondent B is a male and the results received after calculating his decisions differ from those received after calculating the data on responses from Respondent A and Respondent C.

The assessment of the data turned out to be very interesting and contributing to the overall data collected on the issue of decision-making, it assessment, and its value for occupational choices made in different ages by representatives of different genders. As reported by Barrick and Mount (1991), there is a great number of researches conducted on the matter of occupational characteristics and applicability of the personal features to a specific occupational area.

Conclusion

To conclude, the responses of participants of the assessment are different due to a number of factors including demographics and personality. Thus, the Respondent A considered the social status to be the most important criterion while assessing the occupation while the risk was an undesired feature of the activity.

At the same time, the Respondent B worked for years on the position that requires risk and ability to make decisions in extreme situations. This is why he values the profession of journalist higher than other occupations presented for assessment because he thinks the activity of journalist imposes greater risk on a person engaged into this area.

It is also necessary to mention that the Respondent C values income and social status as the greatest benefits of the occupation. In this respect, she considers the occupation of dentist as the most appropriate one while the activity of journalist got equal rating due to certain challanges of this occupation which are also valued by this respondent.

Reference List

Barrick, M. R., and Mount, M. K., 1991. The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, pp. 1-26.

Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., and Gupta, R., 2003. Meta-analysis of the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and Holland’s occupational types. Personnel Psychology, 56, pp. 45-74.

Cole, Stephen, and Barber, Elinor, 2003. Increasing faculty diversity: the occupational choices of high-achieving minority students. Continuing Higher Education Review, 67, pp. 183-188.

Eccles, J. S., 1994. Understanding women’s educational and occupational choices: applying the Eccle’s et al. model of achievement-related choices. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 585-609.

Elrod, Terry, Johnson, R. D., and White, J., 2004. A new integrated model of noncompensatory and compensatory decision strategies. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95, pp. 1-19.

Judge, T. A., and Bretz, R. D., Jr., 1991. The effects of work values on job choice decisions. CAHRS Working Paper, 91-23, pp. 1-35.

Murnane, R. J., Singer, J. D., and Willett, J. B., 1989. The influences of salaries and ‘opportunity costs on teacher’s career choices: evidence from North Carolina. Harvard Educational Review, 59 (3), pp. 325-346.

Polachek, Solomon W., 1981. Occupational self-selection: a human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 63 (1), pp. 60-69.

Rynes, S. L., 1989. Recruitment, job choice, and post -hire consequences: a call for new research directions. CAHRS Working Paper, 89-07, pp. 1-92.

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OmegaFl1ght. (2020, January 13). Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/consumer-behaviour-2/

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OmegaFl1ght. "Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices." IvyPanda, 13 Jan. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/consumer-behaviour-2/.

1. OmegaFl1ght. "Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices." IvyPanda (blog), January 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/consumer-behaviour-2/.


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OmegaFl1ght. "Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices." IvyPanda (blog), January 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/consumer-behaviour-2/.

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OmegaFl1ght. 2020. "Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices." IvyPanda (blog), January 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/consumer-behaviour-2/.

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OmegaFl1ght. (2020) 'Evaluation Criteria of the Occupational Choices'. IvyPanda, 13 January.

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