The purpose of this paper is to discuss the aspects of knowledge management with references to the level of community and society. The field of the KMS is constantly changing, and it is important to focus on the research of Swift, Balkin, and Matusik in the area because they contribute to understanding the knowledge exchange as influenced by such individual factors as intrinsic motivation and goal orientation.
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The researchers conclude that explicit knowledge is shared under the impact of individuals’ preferences when tacit knowledge is less dependable on the factor.
Knowledge plays the key role in the modern economy, business and market relations. As a result, the focus on the knowledge management (KM) as the approach to store, coordinate, share, and exchange the intellectual resources, practices, and strategies is important to contribute to the organisation’s growth and development (Dalkir, 2011, p. 5).
The purpose of this assignment is to discuss knowledge management at the societal level, while focusing on describing new ideas presented in the research literature on the issue of utilising the knowledge management systems (KMS) and emphasising on the research’s contribution to the field of the KMS.
The importance of this assignment is in the fact that the field of the KMS is constantly changing, and it is necessary to pay much attention to the trends in the sphere. In their research “Goal Orientations and the Motivation to Share Knowledge” (2010), Swift, Balkin, and Matusik concentrate on studying the role of the motivation in the knowledge exchange process.
The researchers start with discussing the role of the motivation factor and the social exchange theory, focus on costs and benefits of sharing the knowledge in organisations, pay attention to the role of the goal orientation, and create the model to discuss the relationship between motivation, goal orientation, and the process of sharing the knowledge (Swift, Balkin, & Matusik, 2010, p. 378).
In spite of the fact that the researchers focus only on the aspect of the goal orientation to affect the knowledge exchange, the authors’ contribution to the field of the KM is significant because they provide the model to demonstrate how an individual factor, goal orientation, and a vision of the knowledge value can influence the process of sharing the knowledge.
The Main Idea of Swift, Balkin, and Matusik’s Research and Representation of KM Concepts
In their research, Swift, Balkin, and Matusik focus on discussing the role of the goal orientation associated with the factor of motivation in affecting the exchange of knowledge in organisations. The researchers state that motivation is important to influence the employee’s communication and sharing knowledge because of the role of connected benefits and costs, and goal orientation plays the key role in affecting the exchange of knowledge.
However, different goal orientations have various effects. Thus, the employees’ performance goal orientation guarantees less focus on sharing the information when the employees with learning goal orientations are more willing to exchange their explicit knowledge. The exchange of tacit knowledge is realised according to the other rules, and intrinsic motivation does not play the important role in this case (Swift et al., 2010, p. 386).
The researchers actively operate such important KM concepts as knowledge sharing or exchange, explicit and tacit knowledge, publicly and privately operated knowledge, and characteristics of the knowledge.
Swift, Balkin, and Matusik pay much attention to discussing the idea of knowledge sharing as a result of the cost-benefit analysis and as the process affected by the person’s intrinsic motivation and learning goal orientation (Swift et al., 2010, p. 387). The researchers also use the traditional definitions of explicit and tacit knowledge which differ in codification and add to the discussion of private and public knowledge.
Differences in the Traditional Vision of KM and Researchers’ Ideas
Although Swift, Balkin, and Matusik focus on the traditional division of knowledge in tacit and explicit, the researchers also discuss these types of knowledge in relation to their private or public character. Furthermore, the authors are inclined to accentuate such important elements of knowledge management as people and culture, while paying less attention to process and technology (Swift et al., 2010, p. 388).
Thus, the article provides the discussion from the perspective of an individual and his role for sharing knowledge in the organisation as a result of which it is possible to receive definite benefits.
Updating the Dalkir Text
Referring to Swift, Balkin, and Matusik’s research, it is possible to update Dalkir’s text in relation to the discussion of the role of tacit and explicit knowledge in organisation and information related to their exchange.
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Thus, the authors note that the explicit knowledge can be shared without the impact of an individual’s motivation and goal orientation because it is the exchange of codified knowledge oriented to receiving individual and corporate benefits.
Tacit knowledge is shared by those employees with learning goal orientation in comparison with performance goal orientation (Dalkir, 2011, p. 7; Swift et al., 2010, p. 386). This information is important to improve the classification of knowledge and to revise the approach to KMS, influencing people’s performance.
The Research’s Contribution
It is possible to state that the research makes the great contribution to the field of knowledge management because the authors focus on distinguishing between performance and learning goal orientation as the factor which can influence the whole process of sharing knowledge.
Knowledge exchange contributes to forming and developing organisational communities, and it is necessary for managers to know what factors and aspects can influence the person’s desire to share tacit and explicit knowledge (Argote, McEvily, & Reagans, 2003, p. 572).
Swift, Balkin, and Matusik use the new approach to discussing knowledge characteristics, and analyse the role of motivation in the knowledge exchange context. As a result, it is possible to pay attention to the individual contribution to the KMS which can be affected and regulated with references to different goal orientations.
Application of the Research’s Conclusions
The conclusions of the research can be used by human resource (HR) managers and knowledge management department in order to improve the KMS and make an emphasis on the individual factor and role of motivation in the organisational community.
Thus, the researchers conclude that the learning goal orientation is more appropriate for sharing the explicit knowledge, and differences in goal orientation can influence the whole exchange of the information in the system.
Following these conclusions, HR managers can improve the selection process and focus on hiring employees with the high levels of learning goal orientation (Burgess, 2005, p. 324; Janssen & Prins, 2007, p. 235).
KM can focus on forming the culture and organising the KMS with references to this particular feature in order to increase the effectiveness of the organisation in relation to the work of such system’s elements as people, process, culture, and technology.
Results of Analysing the Research
Having analysed the research, it is possible to focus more on gaining the information about the factors and aspects which can influence the employees’ preferences and behaviours in relation to sharing the information (Lu, Leung, & Koch, 2006, p. 8).
Furthermore, it is necessary to state more clear connections between motivation to share the knowledge, goal orientation, and received benefits in order to develop management practices oriented to increasing organisational effectiveness.
The article “Goal Orientations and the Motivation to Share Knowledge” written by Swift, Balkin, and Matusik provides the important information on differences in the individual’s motivation and goal orientation which can influence the knowledge exchange process in the organisation.
The researchers contribute to the field of KM while proposing more additions to the classification system of knowledge and while focusing on the role of the individual factor in affecting the KMS.
Argote, L., McEvily, B., & Reagans, R. (2003). Managing knowledge in organizations: An integrative framework and review of emerging themes. Management Science, 49(4), 571-582.
Burgess, D. (2005). What motivates employees to transfer knowledge outside their work unit? Journal of Business Communication, 42(4), 324-348.
Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge management in theory and practice. New York, NY: The MIT Press.
Janssen, O., & Prins, J. (2007). Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(1), 235-249.
Lu, L., Leung, K., & Koch, P. T. (2006). Managerial knowledge sharing: the role of individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors. Management and Organization Review, 2(1), 5-41.
Swift, M., Balkin, D., & Matusik, S. (2010). Goal orientations and the motivation to share knowledge. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(3), 378-393.