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Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations Thesis


Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of data, discussion, and recommendation on the differences that exist among individuals regarding their behavior, especially in conflict situations. Individuals must learn how to control emotions in such circumstances. The purpose of the study was to measure the effectiveness of the Goldstein’s social skill streaming model based on the special and general pre-service teachers’ knowledge about controlling their emotions in conflict situations. A review of previous pieces of literature guided the design and measurement of the effectiveness of the approach to the control of emotions. The teachers were assessed using the coping strategy, adult anger, and Goldstein’s skill streaming inventories. Lastly, the paper provides various recommendations on the sensitization of the Goldstein’s Social Skill streaming model to both the special and pre-service teachers to promote their knowledge about controlling emotions in conflicts.

Data Analysis

Research Question 1

Do the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of adopting the Coping Strategy Inventory (CSI) vary after receiving training using the Goldstein’s Social Skill-streaming Model?

Measurement Tool

The researcher used the Coping Strategy Inventory (CSI) tool (refer to Appendix A) to measure the weekly perception differences that occurred during the study period. The measurements of the pre-service teachers’ knowledge and perceptions were obtained by identifying their reactions to various situations that involved conflicts. The process was accomplished as described in the study proposal. The pre and posttests were conducted on all the participants at experimental and control levels.

Analysis

The researcher ignored the use of the individual respondent’s skills while using the CSI tool. During the pre-assessment period, the teachers’ social skill rating was recorded based on the causes of the conflict, avoidance of the encounters, plans for action, solving the problem, control of personal reactions, courageousness, composing oneself, seeking help, and/or forgetting the situation as presented in Table 1a (ii). The coping strategy inventory tool was used to rank each of the respondent’s lowest skills. The post-assessment scores (see table Table 1a (ii)) indicated an increase in the perceived use of the social skills after the training. This scenario was indicated by the high values noted in the skills and idea of seeking assistance from other people to explain their situations. It also included the formulation of action plans that were to be followed strictly. The least improvement was noted in situations that involved self-control (see Appendix A). A comparison of the p-Value between the control and experiment groups was accomplished after the training. The results indicated that the effectiveness of the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model with a p-Value of 0.648838. The p-Value of the control was 0.087035. It can be concluded that the Goldstein’s skill-streaming training is effective in improving the skills of controlling emotions amongst teachers involved in conflict situations.

Research Question 2

Is there a change in the Adult Anger Inventory (AAI) score from the pre to post-assessment after the training using the Goldstein’s social skill-streaming model?

Measuring Tool

An Adult Anger Inventory was used to measure the differences that occurred during the study period. The measurements included the pre-service teachers’ knowledge and their perceptions of the Goldstein’s social skill-streaming model. The process involved the identification of their anger reactions to different conflict situations. The pre and posttests were conducted on the participants both at the experimental and control levels.

Analysis

The Adult Anger Inventory tool was used to assess the ranking skills of each participant. The pre-assessment indicated the lowest ranking as staying away from the conflict. It also showed that there was a tendency of getting irritated. Blaming oneself for the conflict was also noted. The highest-ranking skill using this test showed that most of the respondents got support from the individuals their counterparts in the conflict. A post-assessment was then conducted after the training. The participants were rated according to the use of their skills in controlling their anger.

The post-assessment scores indicated an increase in their perceived use of social skills to control their anger in conflict situations (see Table 2a (ii)). The highest-ranking on the use of skills to control anger was evident when the respondent got angry at corrections as well as where they showed a heightened self-control rather than getting irritated during the conflict. The score was least in situations where individuals blamed themselves for the conflict (see Appendix B).

A comparison between the p-Value of the control and experiment groups after the training where the control group was excluded indicated an effectiveness of the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model. A p-Value of 0.119405 was recorded as compared to that of the control, which was 0.0002. It can be concluded that the Goldstein’s skill-streaming training is effective in the improvement of the emotion-controlling skills amongst teachers in conflict situations.

Research Question 3

Is there a difference amongst the pre-service teachers’ knowledge about their social skill use according to the pre/post-skill-streaming inventory scores after training with the Goldstein’s Social Skill-streaming Model?

Measurement Tool

The researcher used Goldstein’s skill-streaming inventory scores to identify the differences that existed between the pre and post-assessment. A rating checklist was used to assess and determine the frequency at which the participants reported using specific social skills. The checklist was issued as a pre-and-post assessment. At the pre-assessment stage, the scores were used to note the most informed skills shown during the experiment. Both the pre and post-assessment scores assisted by noting the differences and effectiveness of Goldstein’s skill-streaming model due to the change in the growth of the teachers’ perceived knowledge of emotional control of conflict situations. Teachers who had used the skills often developed confidence in handling conflict solutions.

Analysis

After the pre and post assessment, the participants were rated according to the use of their skills. They were provided with a 45-minute session of the Goldstein social skill-streaming model per week. This process continued for 10 weeks. A weekly 40-minute session of the self-as-a-model training was also provided for 10 weeks. The pre and post-assessment before training indicated lower scores regarding the use of the perceived skills to control emotions in conflict situations. The least ranking was noted in the understanding one’s feelings that had a difference of 2 between the pre and post-assessment. Avoidance of problems had a difference of 3 between the evaluations. A difference of 11 between the pre and post-assessment was noted in the formulation of a solution to the conflict.

The post-assessment scores after training (shown in Table 3a (ii)) indicated an increase in their perceived use of social skills in conflict situations with the highest improvement shown in the avoidance of conflicts. In this case, paying attention to dealing with the conflict was also rated high. Both skills scored a difference of 19 between the pre and post-assessment after the training. The least difference occurred in the skills about dealing with the people’s anger that had a difference of 12 between the pre and post-assessment (see Appendix C).

A comparison between the p-values of the control and experiment groups after the training where the control group was excluded indicated the effectiveness of Goldstein’s skill-streaming model. The experiment had a p-value of 0.358992 while the control scored 0.012496. It can be concluded that the Goldstein’s skill-streaming training model is effective in improving the skills of controlling emotions amongst teachers involved in conflict situations.

Discussion

Goldstein’s Skill-Streaming Training Technique

The respondents were trained in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model whilst focusing on the behaviors and feelings that guided the formulation of solutions to conflict situations. The participants were taught the target behaviors such as using words and certain actions for expression to limit the instances of intimidation. Others included replacement behaviors such as support, positive actions and words, effective ways of solving conflicts.

The move to measure the effectiveness of the Goldstein’s Model increased the respondents’ knowledge about social skills. The result was a perceived replacement of the negative behaviors towards conflicts. Changing behaviors were observed using other techniques such as the Coping Strategy, Adult Anger, and Goldstein’s inventories to note any improvement after the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model lecture (Elksnin & Elksnin, 2003).

Coping Inventory for Conflict Situation (CICS)

The coping strategy inventory implemented in this study is a description of the cognitive and behavior of a person in a conflict (Ramli, Ariff, Khalid, & Rosnani, 2010). The inventory was used to assess coping skills such as distancing oneself from the scene, self-control, seeking social support, acceptance of the responsibility, and/or planning for a solution (Gresham, Elliott, & Kettler, 2010). It was noted that the Goldstein’s skill-streaming training was effective in increasing the knowledge about the coping strategy inventor. The result was indicated by a p-value of 0.648838; hence, the respondents were likely to repeat the knowledge in conflict situations. Two separate studies conducted by Stein (2001) and Ramli et al. (2010) obtained similar results. In both studies, the researchers used the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). It was noted that the inventory displayed a psychometric consistency upon the assessment of the knowledge about the social skills used in stressful situations.

Adult Anger Inventory in Conflict Situation

The adult anger inventory was used to describe various conflicts that were related to the arousal of anger. A Likert scale was used to rate the degree to which the skills described controlled the respondents’ anger. The skills assessed in the inventory included the learning and management of anger by exercising self-control over the violence. Such actions were underpinned by the prevailing thoughts and support of the audience of the situation (Blake & Hamrin, 2007).

Various studies also show that anger brings about negative consequences. The inventory of anger used in the study elaborates on the expression, causes, feelings, and ways of control. Both short and computer-generated inventory were used. The assessment was conducted before and after training of the respondents in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model. The assessment was also conducted to note any improvement in the knowledge about the control of anger when inventory was used in combination together with the training in the Goldstein’s skill streaming.

A comparison of the Adult Anger Inventory indicated an improved knowledge on the management of anger after training, which was indicated by a rise in the p-value by 0.119405. The control indicated a 0.0002 increase in the p-value. It was noted that including the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model increased the knowledge of the respondent’s to solve conflicts. Although using the adult anger inventory is perceived as one of the methods that significantly improve the knowledge about controlling emotions in conflict situations, it works best when used together with the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model. The training ensures that accurate information was obtained on the improved skills rather than when the adult anger inventory was used independently.

Goldstein’s Skill-Streaming Inventory

The Goldstein’s skill-streaming inventory elaborated four components that included modeling, role-playing, performance feedback, and training. The assessment of the experimental group indicated moderately high skills that the respondents applied to conflict situations. After the training, the respondents improved in their perceived skills in dealing with conflict situations as indicated by a p-value of 0.358992 and 0.012496 for the experiment and control groups respectively. The probability that the respondents were likely to use the skills in different conflict situations was high. This study closely related to the one conducted by Maag (2006) that focused on the social skills among children.

Recommendations

  • Based on the analysis of the effectiveness of the Goldstein’s Skill-streaming Model, it was recommended to provide a better faculty for teacher development in social skills to heighten the control of emotions in cases that involve conflicts.
  • The methods should also be used together to improve the feasibility of the conflict resolution processes. For instance, the Goldstein’s social skill-streaming model should be integrated with the copying inventory stress strategies to reinforce the skills of controlling emotions and attitudes towards conflicts.

Conclusion

The study entailed measuring the effectiveness of the Goldstein’s social skill-streaming model amongst the special and general pre-service teachers’ knowledge about controlling their emotional skills in conflicts. The results indicated that training teachers in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming model improved the skills used in conflict situations. Most institutions use various methods to train students on how to control emotions and anger by seeking the required skills needed in conflict situations. Most of these institutions combine the methods for successful outcomes. Such practices included the copying inventory stress strategies and anger inventories among others.

Reference List

Blake, C., & Hamrin, V. (2007). Current approaches to the assessment and management of anger and aggression in youth: A review. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 20(4), 209-221.

Elksnin, L., & Elksnin, N. (2003). Fostering social-emotional learning in the classroom. Education, 124(1), 63.

Gresham, F., Elliott, S., & Kettler, R. (2010). Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: An analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System: Rating Scales. Psychological assessment, 22(4), 809.

Maag, J. (2006). Social skills training for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: A review of reviews. Behavioral Disorders, 32(1), 4-17.

Ramli, M., Ariff, F., Khalid, Y., & Rosnani, S. (2010). Validation of the Bahasa Malaysia version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry, 17(2), 11.

Stein, S. (2001). Review of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. London: Lincoln.

Appendices

Appendix A

Table 1a (i): Showing the coping strategy inventory for the pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group before training in the Goldstein’s Skill-streaming Model

Skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Decision on what led to the conflict, 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 24 30
Expression of feelings 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 27 30
Avoiding fear and composing one’s self 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 27 32
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 25 28
Solving the problem 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 24 28
Controlling one’s self 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 23 26
Able to forget what has happened 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 21 24
Make a plan of action and followed it. 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 25 31
Blaming one’s self 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 4 1 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 23 25
Getting assistance to explain to your situation how you feel 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 4 3 2 4 3 3 4 5 4 2 28 31

Table 1a (ii): Showing the coping strategy inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group after training in the Goldstein’s Skill-Streaming Model

Skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Decision on what led to the conflict, 2 4 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 4 24 36
Expression of feelings 2 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 30 35
Avoiding fear and composing one’s self 3 4 2 4 3 4 2 4 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 3 4 27 37
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 3 2 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 3 4 25 36
Solving the problem 2 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 26 36
Controlling one’s self 2 4 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 2 4 26 35
Able to forget what has happened 3 4 2 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 4 4 4 3 4 29 36
Make a plan of action and followed it. 2 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 25 38
Blaming one’s self 3 4 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 26 37
Getting assistance from someone to explain to your situation how you feel 3 4 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 30 39

Table 1b: Showing the coping strategy inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for control group before and after the period of training (control excluded from the training)

skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Decision on what led to the conflict, 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2
Expression of feelings 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3
Avoiding fear and composing one’s self 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3
Solving the problem 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Controlling one’s self 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2
Able to forget what has happened 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3
Make a plan of action and followed it. 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
Blaming one’s self 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2
Getting assistance to explain to your situation how I feel 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4

Appendix B

Table 2a (i): Showing the Adult Anger Inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group before training in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming Model.

Statements Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Being irritated more than people’s expectation 3 4 1 4 2 4 4 4 3 4 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 3 3 4 23 37
Making yourself angry by thinking of conflict 1 3 3 4 3 3 1 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 26 34
I fight because of conflict 3 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 3 2 2 2 27 33
I always stay away from conflict 1 2 1 3 1 3 3 4 3 4 1 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 19 34
I meditate to let my anger go 3 4 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 2 4 1 4 29 34
I blame myself for my anger 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 2 2 23 29
I realize that I cause my own anger 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 3 4 28 35
I expressing myself negatively when I’m angry 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 4 4 24 29
Some support the other person whom you argue with 3 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 31 37
I get angry when corrected 3 2 1 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 3 1 4 2 4 1 4 22 35

Table 2a (ii): Showing the Adult Anger Inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group after training in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming Model

Statements Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Being irritated more than people’s expectation 3 5 1 4 2 5 4 5 3 4 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 5 3 5 23 44
Making yourself angry by thinking of conflict 1 4 3 4 3 5 1 5 3 3 2 5 4 4 2 3 4 5 5 5 28 43
I fight because of conflict 3 4 2 4 3 5 2 3 2 5 3 5 4 3 2 4 3 5 2 5 26 43
I always stay away from conflict 1 3 1 4 1 4 3 4 3 4 1 4 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 4 21 40
I meditate to let my anger go 3 5 2 5 3 5 4 3 4 5 3 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 1 5 32 44
I blame myself for my anger 2 3 3 4 2 4 5 4 2 4 3 2 3 4 2 5 4 5 2 4 28 39
I realize that I cause my own anger 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 2 5 3 5 2 5 4 5 3 5 28 43
I expressing myself negatively when I’m angry 2 4 1 5 2 4 2 4 4 5 4 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 4 5 24 42
Some support the other person whom you argue with 3 4 2 5 4 5 4 3 3 5 4 4 3 5 3 4 3 5 4 4 33 44
I get angry when corrected 3 4 1 5 2 4 3 4 3 5 4 5 2 5 1 5 2 5 1 4 22 46

Table 2b: Showing the Adult Anger Inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for control group (control excluded during training)

Statements Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Being irritated more than people’s expectation 3 3 1 1 2 2 4 4 3 3 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3
Making yourself angry by thinking of conflict 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 5 5
I fight because of conflict 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 2 2
I always stay away from conflict 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3
I meditate to let my anger go 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 5 1 1
I blame myself for my anger 2 2 3 3 2 2 5 5 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2
I realize that I cause my own anger 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3
I expressing myself negatively when I’m angry 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 4
Some support the other person whom you argue with 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4
I get angry when corrected 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

Appendix C

Table 3a (i): Showing the Goldstein’s skill streaming inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group before training in the Goldstein’s social skill-streaming Model

skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Paying attention when dealing with conflict 2 4 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 25 36
Talking to one another 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 2 3 4 3 1 3 26 33
Being appreciative of others 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 1 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 26 29
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 22 33
Seeking assistance from others 2 3 1 4 2 4 3 2 4 4 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 1 4 22 33
Being apologetic 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 26 32
Understanding your feelings 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 25 27
Expressing your feeling 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 24 32
Understanding others’ feelings 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 25 30
Dealing with people’s anger 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 2 3 1 1 4 4 1 3 22 30

Table 3a (ii): Showing the Goldstein’s Skill Streaming Inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group after training in the social skill-streaming Model

skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Paying attention when dealing with conflict 2 5 2 4 3 5 3 5 3 4 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 5 2 5 25 44
Talking to one another 1 3 3 5 3 4 1 4 3 4 2 5 4 5 2 4 4 5 5 5 27 44
Being appreciative of others 3 4 2 5 3 5 2 4 2 4 3 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 2 4 26 40
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 3 1 4 2 4 2 4 3 5 1 3 3 5 3 4 2 4 3 5 22 41
Seeking assistance from others 2 5 1 5 2 5 3 3 4 5 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 5 1 4 25 43
Being apologetic 2 5 3 5 2 4 3 4 2 4 1 2 3 5 2 3 4 5 4 4 28 41
Understanding your feelings 3 4 2 3 3 3 4 5 3 4 2 3 3 5 2 4 4 5 3 5 29 41
Expressing your feeling 2 4 3 5 2 4 2 4 3 5 4 4 2 3 1 3 2 4 3 5 24 41
Understanding others’ feelings 3 4 2 5 2 5 3 3 2 5 4 4 2 5 3 4 3 5 2 4 26 44
Dealing with people’s anger 3 4 2 5 2 3 3 5 3 4 4 5 2 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 32 44

Table 3b: Showing the Goldstein’s skill streaming inventory for the pre and post assessment of the social skills for control group (control excluded from the training)

skills Respondents
001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 Total
P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po P Po
Paying attention when dealing with conflict 5 5 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2
Talking to one another 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 5 5
Being appreciative of others 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 2 2
Avoiding problems or conflicts 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3
Seeking assistance from others 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1
Being apologetic 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4
Understanding your feelings 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3
Expressing your feeling 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3
Understanding others’ feelings 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2
Dealing with people’s anger 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 5 5 4 4 4 4

Appendix D

ANOVA TABLES

ANOVA Table 1a: Showing the coping strategy inventory for pre and post assessment of the social skills for experiment group after training in the Goldstein’s Skill-streaming Model

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 60 3 0.736842
Row 2 20 62 3.1 0.621053
Row 3 20 64 3.2 0.694737
Row 4 20 61 3.05 0.681579
Row 5 20 62 3.1 0.621053
Row 6 20 61 3.05 0.786842
Row 7 20 65 3.25 0.513158
Row 8 20 63 3.15 0.765789
Row 9 20 61 3.05 0.681579
Row 10 20 68 3.4 0.568421
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
Post- assessment 10 38 3.8 0.177778
002 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post- assessment 10 36 3.6 0.266667
003 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post- assessment 10 33 3.3 0.677778
004 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
Post- assessment 10 36 3.6 0.266667
005 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
Post- assessment 10 35 3.5 0.5
006 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.844444
Post- assessment 10 34 3.4 0.711111
007 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
Post- assessment 10 38 3.8 0.177778
008 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post- assessment 10 34 3.4 0.488889
009 Pre-assessment 10 34 3.4 0.488889
Post- assessment 10 39 3.9 0.1
010 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
Post- assessment 10 39 3.9 0.1
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 2.605 9 0.289444 0.765051 0.648838 1.934988
Within respondents 62.055 19 3.266053 8.632738 9.56E-17 1.647704
Error 64.695 171 0.378333
Total 129.355 199

ANOVA Table 1b: The coping strategy inventory for the pre and post assessment of social skills for the control group

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 48 2.4 0.252632
Row 2 20 54 2.7 0.431579
Row 3 20 53 2.65 0.45
Row 4 20 50 2.5 0.473684
Row 5 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 6 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 7 20 58 2.9 0.515789
Row 8 20 50 2.5 0.473684
Row 9 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 10 20 60 3 0.631579
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
Post-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
002 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
003 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
004 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
Post-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
005 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
Post-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
006 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.844444
Post-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.844444
007 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
Post-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
008 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
Post-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.233333
009 Pre-assessment 10 34 3.4 0.488889
Post-assessment 10 34 3.4 0.488889
010 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
Post-assessment 10 27 2.7 0.455556
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 6.045 9 0.671667 1.723127 0.087035 1.934988
Within respondents 21.095 19 1.110263 2.848323 0.000167 1.647704
Error 66.655 171 0.389795
Total 93.795 199

ANOVA Table 2a: Showing the Adult Anger Inventory for the pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group after training in the Goldstein’s skill-streaming Model

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 67 3.35 1.923684
Row 2 20 71 3.55 1.734211
Row 3 20 69 3.45 1.313158
Row 4 20 61 3.05 1.628947
Row 5 20 76 3.8 1.326316
Row 6 20 67 3.35 1.186842
Row 7 20 71 3.55 1.313158
Row 8 20 66 3.3 1.694737
Row 9 20 77 3.85 0.765789
Row 10 20 68 3.4 2.147368
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.711111
Post-assessment 10 39 3.9 0.544444
002 Pre-assessment 10 17 1.7 0.677778
Post-assessment 10 43 4.3 0.455556
003 Pre-assessment 10 25 2.5 0.722222
Post-assessment 10 45 4.5 0.277778
004 Pre-assessment 10 32 3.2 1.511111
Post-assessment 10 39 3.9 0.544444
005 Pre-assessment 10 30 3 0.444444
Post-assessment 10 44 4.4 0.488889
006 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 1.344444
Post-assessment 10 42 4.2 0.844444
007 Pre-assessment 10 31 3.1 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 42 4.2 0.622222
008 Pre-assessment 10 20 2 0.666667
Post-assessment 10 39 3.9 0.766667
009 Pre-assessment 10 31 3.1 1.211111
Post-assessment 10 49 4.9 0.1
010 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 1.733333
Post-assessment 10 46 4.6 0.266667
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 10.105 9 1.122778 1.597363 0.119405 1.934988
Within respondents 165.455 19 8.708158 12.38899 2.61E-23 1.647704
Error 120.195 171 0.702895
Total 295.755 199

ANOVA Table 2b: Showing an Adult Anger Inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for control group

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 47 2.35 0.976316
Row 2 20 56 2.8 1.642105
Row 3 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 4 20 43 2.15 0.871053
Row 5 20 64 3.2 1.221053
Row 6 20 56 2.8 1.010526
Row 7 20 56 2.8 0.8
Row 8 20 48 2.4 1.305263
Row 9 20 66 3.3 0.431579
Row 10 20 44 2.2 1.010526
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.711111
Post-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.711111
002 Pre-assessment 10 17 1.7 0.677778
Post-assessment 10 17 1.7 0.677778
003 Pre-assessment 10 25 2.5 0.722222
Post-assessment 10 25 2.5 0.722222
004 Pre-assessment 10 32 3.2 1.511111
Post-assessment 10 32 3.2 1.511111
005 Pre-assessment 10 30 3 0.444444
Post-assessment 10 30 3 0.444444
006 Pre-assessment 10 27 2.7 1.344444
Post-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.766667
007 Pre-assessment 10 31 3.1 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 31 3.1 0.544444
008 Pre-assessment 10 20 2 0.666667
Post-assessment 10 20 2 0.666667
009 Pre-assessment 10 31 3.1 1.211111
Post-assessment 10 31 3.1 1.211111
010 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 1.733333
Post-assessment 10 28 2.8 1.733333
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 27.98 9 3.108889 3.824054 0.0002 1.934988
Within respondents 45.88 19 2.414737 2.97022 8.98E-05 1.647704
Error 139.02 171 0.812982
Total 212.88 199

ANOVA Table 3a: Showing a Goldstein’s skill streaming inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for experiment group after training on social skill-streaming Model

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 69 3.45 1.313158
Row 2 20 72 3.6 1.726316
Row 3 20 66 3.3 0.957895
Row 4 20 63 3.15 1.502632
Row 5 20 68 3.4 1.621053
Row 6 20 67 3.35 1.502632
Row 7 20 70 3.5 1
Row 8 20 65 3.25 1.355263
Row 9 20 70 3.5 1.315789
Row 10 20 76 3.8 1.115789
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 23 2.3 0.455556
Post-assessment 10 41 4.1 0.544444
002 Pre-assessment 10 21 2.1 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 46 4.6 0.488889
003 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
Post-assessment 10 42 4.2 0.622222
004 Pre-assessment 10 26 2.6 0.711111
Post-assessment 10 41 4.1 0.544444
005 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 0.4
Post-assessment 10 44 4.4 0.266667
006 Pre-assessment 10 26 2.6 1.377778
Post-assessment 10 37 3.7 0.9
007 Pre-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 43 4.3 0.677778
008 Pre-assessment 10 25 2.5 1.166667
Post-assessment 10 37 3.7 0.455556
009 Pre-assessment 10 32 3.2 0.622222
Post-assessment 10 47 4.7 0.233333
010 Pre-assessment 10 29 2.9 1.433333
Post-assessment 10 45 4.5 0.277778
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 6.22 9 0.691111 1.108838 0.358992 1.934988
Within respondents 148.22 19 7.801053 12.51623 1.63E-23 1.647704
Error 106.58 171 0.623275
Total 261.02 199

ANOVA Table 3b: Showing a Goldstein’s skill streaming inventory for pre and post assessment of social skills for control group

ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication
Skills Count Sum Average Variance
Row 1 20 62 3.1 0.936842
Row 2 20 56 2.8 1.642105
Row 3 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 4 20 44 2.2 0.589474
Row 5 20 50 2.5 0.894737
Row 6 20 52 2.6 0.884211
Row 7 20 58 2.9 0.515789
Row 8 20 48 2.4 0.673684
Row 9 20 52 2.6 0.463158
Row 10 20 64 3.2 1.010526
Respondents
001 Pre-assessment 10 26 2.6 1.155556
Post-assessment 10 26 2.6 1.155556
002 Pre-assessment 10 21 2.1 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 21 2.1 0.544444
003 Pre-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
Post-assessment 10 24 2.4 0.266667
004 Pre-assessment 10 26 2.6 0.711111
Post-assessment 10 26 2.6 0.711111
005 Pre-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.544444
006 Pre-assessment 10 28 2.8 1.511111
Post-assessment 10 28 2.8 1.511111
007 Pre-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.544444
Post-assessment 10 29 2.9 0.544444
008 Pre-assessment 10 25 2.5 1.166667
Post-assessment 10 25 2.5 1.166667
009 Pre-assessment 10 32 3.2 0.622222
Post-assessment 10 32 3.2 0.622222
010 Pre-assessment 10 29 2.9 1.433333
Post-assessment 10 29 2.9 1.433333
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between respondents 17.38 9 1.931111 2.434892 0.012496 1.934988
Within respondents 17.78 19 0.935789 1.179914 0.279701 1.647704
Error 135.62 171 0.793099
Total 170.78 199
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IvyPanda. (2020, July 16). Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/controlling-emotions-in-conflict-situations/

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"Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations." IvyPanda, 16 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/controlling-emotions-in-conflict-situations/.

1. IvyPanda. "Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/controlling-emotions-in-conflict-situations/.


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IvyPanda. "Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/controlling-emotions-in-conflict-situations/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/controlling-emotions-in-conflict-situations/.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'Controlling Emotions in Conflict Situations'. 16 July.

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