Background of the study
This section of the research focuses on the summary of the literature review. Generally, the importance of a wide range of reviews cannot be neglected, as a proper analysis of numerous issues depends upon a variety of researches which were conducted earlier (Krippendorff, 2004). The current theme is considered to be of particular concern, as it was proven that a number of cultural standards affect students’ academic performance. As far as cultural standards in 9-12th grade social science curriculum can bring about positive consequences in relation to educational reforms, it becomes evident that the standards also affect the whole education system.
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The current study should be pursued in order to encourage students to be more responsible in relation to the process of education. Furthermore, as far as the project promotes a wide range of social issues, including race and ethnicity, one can probably state that the present study is rather significant to encourage equity in the education sector. The process of cultural diversity promotion seems to be speeded up by the cultural standards.
For this reason, the study is recognized to be significant for both – ethnic minorities and indigenous population. On the other hand, keeping in mind a variety of areas of education the standards can be applied to, one can conclude that the current study is extremely important for all the participants of educational processes.
The research has been guided by the critical race theory, whereby the subject of the research has been investigated and subsequently categorized (Gorski, 2010). In considering the subject of the research, the interactive aspects of education has been addressed. This has focused on the Latino and African American students and their respective cultural backgrounds (Crenshaw, 2009).
The findings gathered from previous research form the foundation of a research. The main way in which a researcher can conduct reliable research is by considering the various researches that have been conducted in the past. In addition, the gaps in the research conducted by various people should be identified. The search is geared towards finding a unifying point or a point of departure (Creswell, 2009).
At this point, the researcher focuses on different gaps that the past research has failed to address. At a certain point, the researcher takes time to compare and contrast the nature of research conducted in the past. The greatest caution is not to copy the past research because past research could have been marred by inaccuracies. In this case, it may lead to a misleading conclusion (Brush & Haynes, 2010).
Curriculum reform in social sciences among the 9-12 graders is important because it forms a major step in eliminating the societal discrimination, whereby many curriculums have been dominated by Eurocentric tendencies (Creswell, 2009). The role of social sciences in curriculum reforms cannot be underestimated, especially at a time when race is being rated as one of the leading factors in facilitating inequities within the society. The interlinking of property ownership with one’s race has created a reason to analyze the social inequities in America (Helfand, 2012). The inequities could only be understood by investigating curriculum reforms done earlier, whereby the social state can be understood from a lower level (Ettinger, 2011).
The social impediments should be understood from a social economic level. The best way to achieve this is through using the educators. The educators can remedy this injustice by having an education system that places all students from different backgrounds at the same footing (Hoag, 2010). This eventually improves the multicultural education system, and students are treated in the same way despite their distinct cultural backgrounds. A multicultural curriculum deals with various cultural differences and the multiple cultural backgrounds are reconciled (Huia, 2008).
The United States has been at the forefront in supporting the social science curriculum in the past. However, there are notable inconsistencies between the performance of the students and cultural relations. The gap between the performance of the white and black students has gradually increased. Therefore, questions have been asked on the validity of the social sciences curriculum. The available data indicate that, in the past, schools have failed to address the issue of discriminating students from distinct cultural backgrounds (Brush & Haynes, 2010).
The diverse educational and psychological needs of students have not been adequately addressed. These needs are pressing, and students, especially from the minority groups, should be given priority in addressing the needs. The impediments in the cultural curriculum in the past years form the basis of the research. The existence of the curriculum has been seen as maintaining the status quo. In addition, there have been slight changes in the implementation of the programs in the public schools (Ettinger, 2011).
The aim of the research is to ascertain how important the 9th-12th grade social science curriculum in schools is today. The presence of the curriculum ought to be understood from its point of benefits while at the same time appreciating the challenges. The aim of the study focuses on the impacts of the curriculum being implemented at the 9th -12th grade. The correlation between the curriculum and the students’ performance has also been considered (Yossi, 2005).
The focus on the different curriculums working in public schools shows their working process and how effective they have been. Cultural diversity is the main subject of the research. This is evident when the curriculum in the 9th -12th grade has been incorporated. The major shift is based on the fact that students have been seen to interpret knowledge according to different cultural backgrounds. A new curriculum should at all times provide mutual benefits state to all cultures (Mitchell, 2004).
The cultural diversity in public schools requires a curriculum that can competently address unique social and economic aspects of different cultures. The question to be considered while including the cultural and social curriculum is the role of different teachers’ approach to the issue. The new curriculum has been said to be incorporated without the need to restructure the existing curriculum (Yossi, 2005).
Brush, C. & Haynes, J. (2010). Developing a Multicultural Curriculum. Everythingesl.net. Web.
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Crenshaw, K. (2009). Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: New Press.
Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. New York: Sage Publications.
Creswell, R. (2009). Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope. New York: Bell Hooks.
Ettinger, D.S. (2011). The Quest to Desegregate Los Angeles Schools. Los Angeles Lawyer, 3(3), 4-9.
Gorski, P. (2010). Key Characteristics of a Multicultural Curriculum. Edchange.org. Web.
Helfand, D. (2012). Shake-ups Launched at Four Schools. Los Angeles Times. A1.
Hoag, C. (2010). Los Angeles schools and American education. Vermont: Burlington Free Press.
Huia, T. H. (2008). The Place of Cultural Standards in Indigenous Education. MAI Review, 1(1), 1-11.
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Mitchell, K. (2004). Geographies of Identity: Multiculturalism Unplugged. Progress in Human Geography, 28(5), 641–651.
Yossi, T.J. (2005). Whose Culture Has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69-91.