The ongoing attention that is accorded to the war that took place in 1948 did not originate from the distinctive facets as a campaign that was based on the military might of the concerned nations. In fact, the more pronounced historical effects of the war are what roused inquisitiveness of the public, as well as interest from academics.
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There are several effects of the war such as the emergence of Israel, and its unrelenting existence as a leader in fronting civilization from the west in the region. The war that started in 1948 is still ongoing although there have been spirited campaigns to end the war. There are several consequences that emerged, such as the refugee problem, which has seen Palestinians become refugees in their own land.
The end of the Second World War saw most countries in the region attain some level of independence from colonial mandatory rule. Britain played a significant role in influencing most of the treaties that were signed in the region among the countries. The war had started in 1947 and ended on 14 May 1948.
The cause of the ceasefire is attributed to the approval by the Jewish People’s Council of the proclamation that affirmed the forming of a state on the Jewish side in Eretz. This state was to be known as Israel.
How did the Zionists try to garner political support in the aftermath of World War 2 and the Holocaust in their dealings with the Superpowers, United Nations, and UNSCOP?
Zionists tried to garner support in the political aspects of their cause through various actions such as pushing through a delay on the treaty for partitioning of their land. They used the period that was allotted due to the delay due to the lack of support for the recommendation to put pressure on a large number of nations. They campaigned for these nations to vote for the recommendation at the UN General Assembly.
They used their position as the victim in the holocaust to influence several nations to consent to the recommendations. The Zionists used any means necessary, and any method that they had to in order to get their way (Shlomo 267).
They addressed certain delegations from different regions informing them that they would manipulate the donors so that the much-needed aid that they received would be blocked from reaching them.
The evolution of the Haganah, including its role in the great Arab revolt and world war two
The Haganah may be referred to as the Hebrew defense organization. The organization dates back to the 1920s when activists formed some sort of defense commissions in the regions of Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv. The fall of Ti Hai saw the rise of the Jerusalem commission. In the course of the Passover riots (Nebi Samuel), the Haganah played a crucial role in defending the region. This was against the Arab invaders.
The Achdut Ha’avoda party, in a convention, formally recognized Haganah. This party consisted of a couple of groups namely the Federation of Agricultural Workers, and the Poalei Ziyon. The main team in the group consisted of members from the Jewish Legion as well as the Zion Mule Corps.
There were also members from the Hashomer guards group, which was in place to take care of the interests of the Jewish settlers in their abodes. Tensions rose among different groups who were disgruntled with the security arrangements. The Haganah was considered illegal at the time. They had no source to arm themselves and they were considered ineffective.
The group was placed under the Histadruth Labor Federation to try to prop it up, but the riots that took place in 1921 rendered it ineffectual. The Zionists elite wanted to legalize the organization following this debacle. It would be under the British army.
The soldiers of the brigade felt as though they would be weakened further. It was then deprived of finances. The group lost the Hashomer people, which was a move that saw them, weaken even further than before.
In 1929, the Haganah became a force to reckon with. They were more effective in the riots that took place in Jerusalem, Haifa, as well as Tel Aviv. The political leaders backed the group making it a nationwide organization.
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Arms were shipped in from Europe, and most of the soldiers were in their youth. The young adults took charge of operations that were carried out by the group. They formed underground factories for the manufacture of light arms.
In the period of 1936 to 1939, the group started training it members in the use of commando tactics. This was under Charles Wingate. The main reason for forming this group was to protect the TAP or Haifa oil pipeline. The group was also trained in attacking, rather that defending, as was the norm in its operations. The British coordinated its operations with the group although it was officially banned.
The cooperation was in the course of the World War 2, as well as the Arab riots. The British managed to subdue the Arab revolt with the use of maximum force. They eventually turned on the Haganah forcing its members to go into hiding.
During World War 2, the Haganah sunk the Patria, which was a ship that was ferrying 1,800 Jews who were being taken to Mauritius by the British (Shlomo 267). Their intention was to cripple the ship, but unfortunately, it sunk killing 260 people who were aboard.
When the Second World War started, Haganah offered the British help. Both parties did not dispute this since the British had the fear of an Axis infiltration in the northern part of Africa. Following the defeat of Rommel at El Alamein in the year 1942, the support that was accorded to Haganah by the British authorities was withdrawn. The formation of the Jewish Brigade Group in 1943 followed a series of requests and conciliations.
This was the first fully-fledged Jewish group to serve in the British army as an independent unit. The only way that Jews had served in the British army in the past was as soldiers who had signed up to serve.
The brigade consisted of over 4,500 soldiers, and it was sent to Italy to fight in September of the year 1944 (Fraser 198). It was called off in 1946. The total number of Palestinian Jews who ended up serving in the war on the British army side was in the range of 30,000 (Fraser 198).
The Haganah created a powerful unit in May 1941. The Palestinians formed this crack commando unit in anticipation of the withdrawal of the British army and subsequent invasion of the Axis. The unit trained its young members, and they acquired special skills in sabotage as well as guerilla tactics.
What preparations were made by the Haganah prior to the outbreak of the 1948 conflict for seizure of territory and the expulsion of Arab Palestinians?
One of the senior members of the Zionist realized that a full-scale war with the Palestinian Arabs could not be avoided. David Ben-Gurion went on a money-raising quest, in a bid to ensure that Haganah was supplied with more arms for their cause. Te money was also supposed to be used to purchase two airplanes.
Although most of the Palestinian Jews had served in the British army in the Second World War, majority of them had not come face to face with mortal combat. They hardly had any experience in warfare. They formed the core of the army that was being rounded up. Several other groups joined up with them such as the Red Army and the French Foreign Legion.
There were also volunteers from the northern parts of America including Canada and the United States of America. Following the decision to partition the region by the UN General Assembly, volunteers flocked the region in search of an opportunity to serve in the Haganah army. The total amount of money that was raised was in the region of $130 million (Laqueur 317).
The IDF was typified by a custom that was the main strength of the group. The group made up for what they lacked such as arms and money, with their audacious antics, as well as their resourcefulness. The group was informal due to their status as an underground movement. The group was close knit with most of the members being familiar with each other. They lived together as neighbors and brothers.
Their military intelligence system became highly enhanced due to their need to adapt to their limited resources. Their hierarchy was more or less informal. The commando tactics and night training augured well for them since their resources were limited.
Their entire operation was based on their need to survive, and they managed to take full advantage of all head starts that they had. They managed to absorb most of the people whom they saved from the Nazi-occupied regions in the European states that had been overrun by the Germans.
How successful were they in implementing their strategies and policies, and how did this affect Israel’s stance on a two-state solution, the return of refugees and the status of Jerusalem once the hostilities ended?
Most of the later year leaders of Israel were former members of the Haganah group and they were sympathetic to the cause of the group. Although the policies could not be fully implemented, the group received sympathy in the form of the Israel Defense Forces, which took over their role but absorbed most of the members. The Haganah liberated interned refugees from camps such as Atlit detainee camp.
The group continued to help with illegal immigration. They also continued with anti-British campaigns aimed at sabotaging the British operations in the region.
Israel acquired recognition as a state, and the leader David Ben-Gurion came up with some crucial decisions that raised plenty of controversy among stakeholders in the region. The issue of militias was outlawed, and all groups were banned including the Haganah. There was a major uproar, and it brought about the generals revolt.
Fraser, Tom. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Studies in Contemporary History, Basingstoke, England: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008. Print.
Laqueur, Walter. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, New York, NY: Citadel Press, 1969. Print.
Shlomo, Chaim. The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East from the 1948 War of Independence to the Present, Adelaide, South Australia: Greenhill, 2004. Print.