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Dress Practices of Saudi Adult Men and Women Research Paper

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Introduction

Literature review is imperative to researchers because it is the first step towards a successful research study. On the other hand, literature mapping is the first step in literature review and it entails a set of maps that represent different ideas, concepts, definitions, and methodologies used in relevant research materials. This paper presents a literature map for two scholarly articles relative to the following research question:

Why does most men in Saudi Arabia continue to wear traditional clothing but women are dressing more modern?”

Further, the research question focuses on the concept of stability vs. change in the contemporary dress practices of Saudi adult men and women.

Note: The numbers provided in brackets in the maps below represent the primary literature sources given at the end of the summary.

APA Style Citation Forey, C.J. & Rabolt, N.J. (1997). Contemporary outer dress and clothing market source use of Middle Eastern Women. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, 21, 51-73.
Key Definitions Dress- this refers to a garment which consists of the skirt with the bodice attached to it.
  • Culture- This refers to a system of values, attitudes, beliefs which are shared within a given society. Culture has an influence on an individual’s perception and behavior.
  • Fashion- This is a general term which is used to describe style and customs which are prevalent within a given time period. The term is mostly used when referring to clothing style.
  • Cultural reformulation- this refers to changes which are occurring in the society with regard to culture (Forey & Rabolt, 1997, p. 52–54).
Purpose and
Justification
The study aims at assessing Qatari women’s outer dressing styles with regard to their traditional and cultural practices.
Currently, there have been significant cultural changes as a result of globalization. These changes are affecting the code of dressing amongst women. Women have started taking positions and roles which were traditionally regarded as males’ roles. Therefore, the article is a source of insight on the changes to be experienced with regard to cultural practices such as dressing not only in Qatar but also in other Arab countries (Forey & Rabolt, 1997, p. 55-56).
Lit Review: Key Cites and Ideas Dress refers to a universally accepted component of culture that reflects the human behavior (1).
  • Fashion is a representative of both the physical and social conditions prevailing in a given cultural organization (1).
  • Cultural reformulation represents the response to new cultural behaviors in a given culture (2).
  • Hamilton’s meta-theory addresses the significance dress practices in a given cultural context.
  • Qatar’s cultural transition, Qatar’s demographic profile, the social significance of the traditional women outer dress in the Islamic culture, the dress market sources for most Qatar women, and the influence of the Islamic culture on most Qatar dress consumers (Forey & Rabolt, 1997, pp. 57-60).
Theoretical Framework Cultural reformulation among most Middle Eastern women indicates the impact of adapting the western culture in designing the female outer dress. Cultural stability is maintained by the Islamic ideology in the Middle East while modernization leads to social and ideological changes observable in most educated women in the Middle East (Forey & Rabolt, 1997, pp. 57-60).
Method
  • The researchers interviewed 50 Qatar female citizens on the basis of their traditional practices related to the female outer dress; age; occupation; their frequency of travelling; education; and socioeconomic conditions.
  • Data collected was analyzed using linear correlations and t-tests
Key Findings
  • The female outer dress is a public symbol rather than a private one.
  • The traditional dressing practices increase with age in most women.
  • Most Qatari women use TV ads; displays in dress stores; and videos as the main market sources in their contemporary dressing practices.
  • Most Qatar women obtain their clothes outside their country and they dress less traditionally when travelling.
  • Compared to Saudi women, most Qatari women dress less traditionally ( Forey &Rabolt, 1997, pp. 62-69)
Strengths and
Weaknesses
Strength: The study provides reliable findings that reflect the contemporary dressing practices perceived to have outdone the traditional ones in most women.
Weakness:The Study has a limited scope because it involves only women and fails to incorporate men. Hence, its findings may not be reliable in the current research study (Forey & Rabolt, 1997, p. 71.
Implications/
Future Research
More studies are required to examine the cultural practices and preferences influencing dress practices in both men and women. In addition, the studies should involve a larger population sample from different cultural backgrounds and nationalities.
References to Find
  1. Anspach, K.A. (1986). Fashion consciousness of Thai women. Journal of Home Economics, 60(4), 268-271.
  2. Kaiser, S.B. (1968). The social psychology of clothing and personal adornment. Macmillan Publishing Company: New York.
  1. Hamilton, J.A. (1987). Dress as a cultural subsystem: A unifying meta-theory for clothing and textiles. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 6, 1-7.
  1. Lancaster, P. (1988). Qatar: The old and the new. The Middle East, 3(1), 40-41.
  2. Qatar: Non-national majority. (1987). Middle East Economic Digest, 31(25), 38.
  3. May, D. (1980). Women in Islam: Yesterday and today. Indiana: Cross Roads Books, ND.
  4. Katz, M. (1986). No women, no alcohol: learn Saudi taboos before placing ads. International Advertiser, 13(7), 11-12.

Article 2.

APA Style Citation Omair, K. (2009). Arab women managers and identity formation through clothing. Gender in Management: An
International Journal, 24(6), 412-431.
Key Definitions Professional attire- This is refers to a type of clothing which is accepted as a standard code of dressing in a given career.
Dress- a garment consisting of the skirt with the bodice attached to it.
  • Identity formation- This refers to the process via which an individual develops a distinct personality.
  • Gender-role stereotypes- This refers to the various cultural definitions with regard to the role of male and female gender. According to Omair, gender –role stereotype may limit an individual’s life.
  • Thehijab– The term is used to refer to the head covering and the dress which was the traditional code of dressing amongst Muslim women (Omair, 2009, pp. 412-414).
Purpose and
Justification
The study aims at examining the development of social identity in Arab female professionals relative to the meanings that they ascribe to their dressing practices at the workplace.
Dressing styles in the Arab countries reflect the religious, socioeconomic, occupational, and educational status of an individual. Considering the fact that women in Arab countries are taking various careers such as in management, there is a high probability that they will attain a new social identity. The article is a source of insight with regard to the possible transformation that will occur with regard to dressing amongst women.
Lit Review: Key Cites and Ideas
  • Professional attires are clothes worn at the workplace, which signify one’s social responsibilities and occupational identity.
  • In most professional women, the attire or dress signifies their social authority, legitimacy, and credibility.
  • Gender-role labels or stereotypes are social norms that influence the actions and appearance in both men and women.
  • In most Arab women, wearing the hijabis a symbol of identifying with their social norms (Omair, 2009, pp. 414-426).
Theoretical Framework The significance of dressing styles in professional women signifies their occupational authority and eliminates any chances of being treated as sex objects.
  • The traditional significance of the Islamic dress is to enable Arab women identify with their social norms.
  • The traditional, the contemporary, and the feminist perspectives of the Islamic dress affect the dressing styles in most Arab female professionals (Omair, 2009, pp. 414-426).
Method
  • The study was conducted in the United Arabs Emirates.
  • 15 UAE female citizens holding managerial posts in various sectors were interviewed to examine their experience and perceptions about their professional attires.
  • The data collected was analyzed using the principles of the Grounded Theory (GT) technique
Key Findings
  • The study shows that there are several social and professional identities in the respondents.
  • Differences exist between respondents particularly when identifying themselves as managers on one hand and women on the other.
  • However, the respondents’ perceptions concurred when identifying themselves as Muslims or UAE citizens.
Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths:
  • The study findings show that there is a strong sensitivity towards dressing practices in most women.
  • The study shows the impact of occupational ranking as a factor that determines the dressing practices in most women.
  • In addition, the study shows the influence of the public perception on women’s dressing practices.

Weaknesses:

  • The study has a limited scope because it utilizes a small geographical area to address the practices of millions of Arab women.
  • The study fails to incorporate male participants and therefore, its findings may not be significant to the current research question (Omair, 2009, pp. 427-428).
Implications/
Future Research
  • The study focuses on development of identity among women in managerial ranks. Hence, additional studies are required to examine this issue in a wider geographical area involving women at all occupational ranks.
  • In addition, future studies should incorporate both men and women in examining the significance of dress practices in the development of social, cultural, and occupational identities.
References to Find
  1. Alvesson, M., Ashcraft, K.L. & Thomas, R. (2008). Identity matters: Reflections on the construction of identity.
  2. Beech, N. (2008). On the nature of dialogic identity work. Organization, 15(1), 51-74.
  3. Metle, M.K. (2002). The influence of traditional culture on attitudes towards work among Kuwaiti women employees in the public sector. Women in Management Review, 17(6), 245-61.
  4. Prasad, P. (2005). Crafting Qualitative Research: Working in the Post-positivist Traditions. London: M.E. Sharpe Publishers.
  5. Ruby, T.F. (2006). Listening to the voices of hijab. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29, 54-66. scholarship in organization studies. Organization, 15(1), 5-28.
  6. Sidani, Y. (2005). Women, work and Islam in Arab societies. Women in Management Review, 29(7), 498-512.

Reference List

Forey, C.J. & Rabolt, N.J. (1997). Contemporary outer dress and clothing market source use of Middle Eastern Women. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, 21, 51-73.

Omair, K. (2009). Arab women managers and identity formation through clothing. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 412-431.

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IvyPanda. (2021, March 24). Dress Practices of Saudi Adult Men and Women. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/dress-practices-of-saudi-adult-men-and-women/

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"Dress Practices of Saudi Adult Men and Women." IvyPanda, 24 Mar. 2021, ivypanda.com/essays/dress-practices-of-saudi-adult-men-and-women/.

1. IvyPanda. "Dress Practices of Saudi Adult Men and Women." March 24, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/dress-practices-of-saudi-adult-men-and-women/.


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IvyPanda. 2021. "Dress Practices of Saudi Adult Men and Women." March 24, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/dress-practices-of-saudi-adult-men-and-women/.

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