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Education Theories: political ideologies Essay


The purpose of this essay is to understand political ideologies and apply them in real life situation. The political ideologies include, conservative, libertarian, liberal and radical. The essay also involves applying the ideologies to social issues.

The essay also includes an analysis of the Harlem project in relation to the political ideologies. The analysis incorporates the views of federal and local government, causes of the problem, strategies to solve problems and the core values that support the solution. The essay also involves defining the political ideologies.


Conservative ideologies: these are political and social views that work towards the maintenance of traditional institutions. The ideologies support minimal and gradual change in society. Conservatives work towards maintaining things as they are.

They emphasize on stability and continuity and oppose modernization (Karl and Fredrich, 2011). To them, change will cause instability in the society and lead to the fall of the economy.

In the US, republicans are conservative and support the idea of reducing government control in every aspect and the introduction of a free market and society. They promote policies such as increasing funds on defense and support death sentence (Barry, 2009).

Libertarian ideologies: These entail social and political ideas through which values that spell out individual freedom, both in thinking and doing, are upheld. They believe and pursue personal freedom and maintain personal responsibility. Those following such ideologies are in strong opposition to the government’s meddling into decisions related to oneself, ones business or family.

According to them, everyone is free to act as per his or her own will without any interference on condition that whatever is done does not have any negative effects towards other citizens. The libertarians call a higher level of freedom, smaller form of administration and reduced taxes. Their ideologies are not common in real life because they have not been in power in any country (Milton, 2002).

Liberal ideologies: these promote beliefs in liberty and equal rights to every citizen. They mainly advocate for ideas such as free and fair elections, constitutionalism, human rights, democracy and freedom of religion. Liberalism rose to oppose the ideologies that oppressed citizens and that include nobility, state religion and absolute monarch (Bruce, 2009).

The liberals were the front runners in the French revolution and American Revolution which led to the end of an oppressive mode of governance. Liberals advocate for change and are ready to embrace new philosophies and ideas. They are democrats and believe in government control, for example, they fight for gun control where no civilians will have fire arms legally or illegally (John and Gildert, 2011).

Radical ideologies: these are political and social philosophies that are aimed at purifying the world. These envision forming social movements to work towards opposing global capitalism. They are opposed to militarism and use Multinational Corporation and believe that this contaminates the society and destroys the desirable cultures.

Radical ideologists believe that the defeat of capitalism will bore a new era which will ensure social justice and sustainable development. They believe these will bring harmony to the world and that through it, the diverse cultures will share the earth. They also believe in no suffering and in collective ownership of property as opposed to capitalism which to them is individualistic (Thomas, 2005).

The analysis of Harlem article in relation to conservative and liberal ideologies basing on their principles can be as follows. The view of the federal government is derived from its role of providing the necessary services to the citizens. This is provided in the constitution to ensure that, as long as people pay taxes they gain from the government.

The services provided are considerably different and are directed towards improving the lives of every resident in an area. The services, which should be, provided by the federal government include education, health, security, housing and environmental protection. To the liberals federal government is the best mode of governance for the provision of these services.

The liberals fight to have services provided by other departments (Bruce, 2009). The federal government has received a lot of opposition from the conservatives who strongly believe that, it is local government’s task to provide such services.

The federal government has the role to distribute funds to schools and disseminate information to be used in school learning programs. The local government is more like the central government, but it has its authority from the central government. It experiences a lot of opposition from the liberals (Milton, 2002).

According to conservatives, the causes of most problems that they face are mainly personal and cultural factors. In the Harlem project therefore, such factors include inadequate parenting, a lot of births outside wedlock and the evolvement of teenagers who do not know the value of an honest day’s work. This view is different from that of the liberals who perceive the causes of the problem as economic.

Such causes according to the liberals therefore include; underfinanced public schools and scarcity of well-paying semiskilled jobs, lack of basic commodities among others. The solution for the problems to both groups can be solved by use of capitalism. The liberals prefer capitalism with regulations.

The core values underpinning the solution to the conservatives are liberty with government regulations and incentives. They believe these will help them achieve the best results. The liberals view the underpinning core value as liberty and social justice (Thomas, 2005).


The above discussion has been effective in giving the definitions of different types of political ideologies have been provided to help have a better understanding of these ideologies. The part two of the paper relates the ideologies to real life situations with emphasis on the USA. This part has brought out the difference in views and expectations between liberals and conservatives as brought out in the Harlem article.


Barry G. (2009).The Conscience of Conservative. London: Wilder Publications.

Bruce. S. (2009). Reluctant Welfare State. California: Cengage.

John S. & Gildart J. (2011). On Liberty. Washington:Tantor Media.

Karl M. & Fredrich E. (2011). Communist Manifesto. New Jersey: Create space.

Milton F. (2002). Capitalism and Freedom: Fortieth Anniversary. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Thomas P. (2005). Common sense. New York: Penguin Pub.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "Education Theories: political ideologies." May 28, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/education-theories-political-ideologies-essay/.


IvyPanda. (2019) 'Education Theories: political ideologies'. 28 May.

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