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A design-based approach is used to develop a study on the effectiveness of technology and web tools in flipped EFL classroom. There are several reasons why this method is effective in discussing the current intervention. First, it is expected to achieve the already established study objectives by incorporating different solutions to one problem that is the lack of practice and knowledge of technologies for flipped classrooms. Second, a design-based approach provides a researcher with an opportunity to identify the achievements and challenges of teachers and students.
In addition to a number of steps in this method, it is necessary to recognize the stages that follow a design-based approach. They include problem exploration, introduction, and development of an intervention, formative evaluation through empirical testing, documentation, and reflection (McKenney & Reeves, 2012). The analysis of needs and problems identifies the goals and expected outcomes.
The development of a research process aims to organize the work and make sure that all members are properly informed. Evaluation proves the correctness of the chosen approach and identifies additional enhancement. Documentation makes the project transparent and available to other stakeholders with their recommendations. Reflection is a step when final decisions are made, and new knowledge is produced.
However, the stage of intervention development and utilization may be characterized by certain difficulties because a researcher has to perform multiple functions and stay flexible. As a supervisor for teachers, a researcher must give instructions and promote support. As a researcher, this person gathers the material, organizes activities, and develops critical thinking and decision-making to deal with unexpected changes. I understand my role as a researcher as an obligation to build trustful relationships with all the participants, including teachers and students. This step allows me to share the necessary information, distributing roles, and achieving research aims.
The expected results have to be reflected in theoretical and practical perspectives. On the one hand, any practical implication should be based on specific learning theories, principles, and conjectures. Theoretical understanding is based on reflection and reasoning with a rational thought being raised in regards to a topic idea (McKenney & Reeves, 2012). In this study, descriptive or explanatory theories will be used to introduce an intervention and evaluate its worth.
Practically, it is expected to improve students’ academic writing by using a flipped classroom model. If no effective results are achieved through the chosen perspective, additional reflection, and the analysis of the literature review should be promoted to find out another suitable option.
The role of reflection cannot be ignored in the methodology as it enhances the development of self-reflection skills and underlines the peculiarities of a learning process. Every cycle of the experiment has to be properly noted, and a research diary is a good option. The evaluation of the literature reviews creates an opportunity to discover a new requirement and be prepared for change. Teachers and students should share their feedback about the work done and the achievements made. Such a collaborative aspect of the design encourages frequent discussions and timely improvements.
Any researcher takes many necessary steps to ensure the high quality of the work done. This study is based on mixed methods research that includes both qualitative and quantitative elements that are derived from surveys and open questions in interviews (Bryman, Becker, & Sempik, 2008). There are no specific quality research criteria for a mixed study. Bryman et al. (2008) recommend focusing on the criteria that play a crucial role in qualitative and quantitative studies.
Compared to the trustworthiness of qualitative research, it is hard to address the validity of quantitative data in the same naturalistic way (Shenton, 2004). Special attention should be paid to qualitative characteristics like credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability (Bryman et al., 2008). As a researcher, I have to ensure the quality of both types of data.
Credibility is one of the most influential factors in research trustworthiness. According to Shenton (2004), it deals with questions posed by a researcher. In this study, the promotion of confidence will be organized in accordance with several provisions. For example, the adoption of research methods has to be properly explained and established, focusing on data collection sessions. Triangulation is another option to check the credibility of the study.
Several methods can be applied to answer one question and gather mixed data to compensate for individual limitations. Finally, it is necessary to ensure honesty among the participants and recognize duties before the experiment. In flipped classrooms, teachers and students should not be afraid to share their opinions about different web tools and their effects on academic activities.
Transferability is another criterion according to which the researcher has to explain how to apply this study to other contexts, and what evidence is used to prove the appropriateness of the chosen methods. It helps establish realistic aims and compare the results from different studies, evaluating data collection methods, time periods, samples, and stakeholders. In this study, the results of the literature review determine further development of the experiment and awareness of the participants about the chosen techniques.
Dependability promotes the possibility of repeating the same experiment in another or the same context and observe the results. The implementation of the results is required with reflective appraisal and new data gathering being promoted with time. Finally, confirmability deals with project objectivity and researcher’s predispositions (Shenton, 2004). In this study, diagrams can be used to demonstrate the existing measurements of the results, and the discussion of shortcomings encourages potential effects and improvements in classrooms.
The necessity to combine teaching and investigation results is a challenging task for participants and a researcher. Therefore, additional help and evaluations may be required during a working process and after its completion. The results of data analysis have to be revised and checked before being officially introduced in the project. It is planned to invite several statisticians and professional correctors to promote high-quality check and evaluation of the work done. A member check is another approach to check the level of the researcher’s knowledge and experience before and after the experiment.
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The success of a design-based research approach is determined by the possibility of a researcher to organize all activities and create a plan before the experiment. The idea to evaluate the effectiveness of technology and web tools in flipped EFL classrooms has to be developed in four main stages. A preliminary phase that consists of two parts occurs during several months. In the beginning, proposal work takes place to identify theoretical frameworks, write a literature review, and introduce an initial design plan.
Then, the analysis of ethical considerations, consultations with research professionals, improvements in the design plan, and recruitment of teachers have to be organized. Students are free to share their personal ideas and approaches and ask their professors for approvals or recommendations to choose the right direction.
The next stage is defined as a prototype phase that discusses the main aspects of the intervention. It is characterized by teachers’ participation in weekly mini-intervention cycles with the necessary preparations and lecture notes. Students have to be informed about their roles and the importance of their feedback.
Teachers must be informed about their tasks and activities in order to develop special lesson plans, and students have to be trained to participate in-class activities and demonstrate their personal attitudes. The same intervention has to be organized three times during the next eight months with a break for reflection and improvements during one between each intervention.
The two final phases of the current research project are assessment and writing. The assessment includes the necessity to gather final reflections on the work done. Summative evaluations help answer research questions and check the credibility of the research design. A practical application of theoretical frameworks gets the researcher prepared for a writing process. Finally, dissertation writing begins with the literature review, the description of an intervention, the chosen research methods, and drafts of the first chapters of the dissertation.
As soon as a data collection section is prepared, the researcher develops an analysis chapter with all the necessary techniques and steps being described. In four years of research work, a final revision should occur to be prepared for defense. In general, the completion of these steps has to be organized in a certain order with clear goals and outcomes being identified.
Bryman, A., Becker, S., & Sempik, J. (2008). Quality criteria for quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research: A view from social policy. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11(4), 261-276.
McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2012). Conducting educational design research. New York, NY: Routledge.
Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information, 22, 63-75.