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Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Companies’ Performance Research Paper


Abstract

The main aim of this research study is to analyze the use of performance management tools in FMCG Companies in Saudi organizations. In line with this objective, the paper identifies some variables as explanatory variables. These variables are effective management performance, creating empowerment and authority, increasing leadership capability, customer-centric strategy, increasing communication and collaboration, enhancing training and development, and sustainable performance.

The study relied on primary data using structured questions to explain the main objective. This research study attempts to explain the various theories related to the relationship between sustainable performance culture and business success. The study used a cross-sectional research design to meet the objectives. The data of the survey were analyzed using statistical techniques such as SPSS, ANOVA, regression, and correlation analysis. The variables in the study explained the dependent variable and the study found that developing a sustainable performance culture enhances business success.

Introduction

This part covers the foundation of the study, issue articulation, Study goals, speculations, and the hugeness of the study.

Background to the study

Now that data, information, individuals, abilities, and cash move uninhibitedly and quickly over the globe, the current strategy is the key to business sustainability. So if a strategy cannot help an establishment gain a competitive advantage in the industry, what can it do to separate itself from the rest? According to Rodger et al. (2006, p. 15), a weak strategy can only be countered by a solid performance culture – something that contenders will not be able to reproduce very fast. By embracing a methodology that integrates even-minded business sense with critical thinking and behavioral understanding, organizations can bring about change that conveys results, as well as makes an additionally satisfying workplace for workers at all levels (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 15).

A performance culture is key to achieving an upper hand in the current era. In the past, having an upper edge implied having more brilliant methodologies and prevalent resources. Even though they are still vital, they are not enough. On account of globalization, in most cases free exchange of information, rivals can replicate another company’s strategy within a short period. What they cannot replicate very fast, in any case, is an excellent performance culture (Phillips, 2005, p. 102).

While a solid performance culture-one where each employee gives their best- can be a manageable wellspring of the upper hand, the absence of it is a noteworthy aggressive burden since it acts as an obstacle to the implementation of change. Nearly three-quarters of change initiatives fail as a result of cultural aspects. Truth be told, change endeavors regularly fail as a result of things they are trying to change, that is, workers dispositions and administrative conduct (Phillips, 2005, p. 104).

Studies have shown that less than 10 percent of companies have succeeded in developing a high-performance culture. According to the study carried out by Bain and Company, Inc., even those companies that succeed in fostering high-performance culture usually find it very difficult to sustain it (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 4). The study also found that companies that succeed in sustaining high-performance culture do so based on the following: first, they have an exceptional identity, tradition, and core values that are neither devised nor prescribed; second, they exemplify six high-performance values and conduct.

The six high-performance values and conduct are thirst and energy, greater ambitions and need to win, external focus, thinking like proprietors, a disposition to action, and teamwork (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 5).

Problem statement

Most studies on performance management have always focused on ways on how to measure and enhance organizational performance. The same studies have also shown that enhancing organizational performance is not a hard task; the hardest task is sustaining that level of performance (Phillips, 2005, p. 104). However, a high level of performance in the long-run requires a sustainable performance culture.

As mentioned above, only less than 10 percent of companies have succeeded in developing a high-performance culture. On the other hand, companies that have succeeded in fostering high-performance culture usually find it very difficult to sustain it (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 4). For this reason, this study is aimed at exploring ways through which companies can develop a sustainable performance culture with the principle focus on organizations in Saudi Arabia.

Research purpose and rationale

This study is fundamental as a result of the way that it fabricates onto the available collection of data regarding the development of a sustainable performance culture in Saudi organizations. The eventual outcomes of this study are extraordinarily critical to the business proprietors in light of the way that they can use it for sorting out purposes, so they can consider evident destinations to draw in and hold a broad customer base.

Research Objectives

The general objective of this paper was to investigate the development of a sustainable performance culture in Saudi organizations. This paper intends to achieve some number of goals, which include:

  1. To evaluate the relationship between performance management and the organization’s sustainability, and
  2. To assess the impact of employees’ qualities on overall business success.

Research Question

The above research objectives will be assessed by taking into consideration the following research question.

  • What is the role of a sustainable performance management culture in Saudi organizations?

Research Hypothesis

The paper is based on the following null (H0) and alternate (H1) research hypotheses to achieve the research objective.

  1. H0: High-quality performance correlates with the organization’s sustainability.
  2. H1: There is no correlation between employees’ qualities and overall business success.

Literature review

Introduction

The study is set to carry out a case study analysis of how the FMCG Companies in Saudi Arabia are utilizing performance management tools. This chapter highlights the work that other scholars and researchers have done and will include a theoretical and empirical literature review.

The theoretical review will focus on key theories that explain sustainable performance culture and how it is created. On the other hand, the empirical review will entail a review of studies that have been carried out on the subject under study. It explores previous studies concerning sustainable performance culture. The literature reviews heavily relied on online academic databases, making use of search phrases and terms, including, but not restricted to, sustainable performance, performance culture, and performance management.

A Shift in Emphasis in Performance Appraisals

Much writing has indicated the issues with performance appraisal, which has driven a few observers to call for the abrogation of the procedure or a reestablished focus on the center components of performance evaluation. For instance, Coens and Jenkins (2000) given their involvement in North America prescribed annulling performance evaluations referring to general failings in developed planning, target setting, and 360-degree input.

They advocate rather more extensive performance administration approaches concentrated on client results and decoupling the mind-boggling blend of procedures involved with performance appraisal. They refer to an FMCG company that supplanted conventional appraisal with an arrangement of individual objective setting, leadership preparing, and worker association that gives officers a chance to pick who they needed to work with and who managed them.

Barney and Hesterly (2006) contend that “at all stages, the accentuation ought to be at the center of the performance and advancement process, that is enhancing the nature of discussions as opposed to experiencing dried out ceremonies, with transparent pioneers setting the case for a society of inquisitive, innovative learning associations” (p. 43). Baker (2002) additionally highlights the issue of directors and workers just making a halfhearted effort of the procedure when he expressed that “not just do directors loathe doing performance appraisal yet numerous concede that it is the most feared errand in their schedule.

Again and again, it prompts a shallow talk, with both sides conniving to meet the association’s endorsed regulatory strategy and, in doing as such, staying away from the most central issue of execution change” (p. 26). These failings of examination have prompted new ways to deal with performance administration.

Barney (1991) observes two elements in performance management writing. This is an exceptionally organized and controlled reverse-looking survey approach which is done to the workers, and a great deal more comprehensive, forward-looking methodology including the individual, supporting their improvement and connecting into the association’s needs and values. In any case, as Holbeche (2005) calls attention to, there is still the requirement for a discussion to both think about past execution and to anticipate.

The last is what is to a great extent in the brain of those that backed a more attached change to performance appraisal: a change to a performance administration theory that draws in representatives more all the while and pushes performance towards key association objectives. The simultaneous disentanglement of procedures that is in progress switches the emphasis on individual plan points of interest and towards the substance of the performance administration process.

In their book on performance management, Berger and Berger (2004) note the movement in phrasing from performance appraisal to performance administration, which they accept demonstrates a more extensive movement in the theory and substance of the procedure. Performance evaluation has a notoriety for being a reformatory, top-down control gadget, a disliked framework. Performance management is a comprehensive, all-out way to deal with drawing in everybody in the association in a persistent procedure, to enhance everybody and their execution, and consequently the execution of the entire association.

Despite the move to receive a comprehensive approach, a late pattern towards disentanglement is likewise obvious from the current research, with better provision and drill being given as more noteworthy center is being put on how these frameworks function in the realism of the association, instead of in respect of the numerous planned strategy expectation and results.

Critiques of Performance Appraisal

Reactions of performance appraisal procedures are not new. Performance audit interviews when in doubt are genuinely deflating to representatives’ feelings of significance and self-esteem. Not just is the ordinary survey neglecting to contribute, in numerous officials’ feeling it can do unsalvageable harm. Once in awhile in the historical backdrop of management can a framework have guaranteed so much and conveyed so little. Notwithstanding Berger and Baron (2004), we discover a lot of reactions in other standard performance management writings, for example, Barney and Hesterly (2006) and Phillips (2005). The key reactions of these journalists and others concentrate on the procedure outline; the performance of the procedure; and the chiefs who lead the procedure.

Process outline

Appraisals are required to meet an excessive number of and clashing goals. Specifically, the evaluative employments of appraisal drive out genuine discussion and in this manner diminish its potential formative and motivational effect. Various studies in Saudi Arabia focus on the issue with performance evaluations with their various destinations of setting targets, giving performance input, surveying potential, talking about advancement needs, and deciding performance-related boosts in salary.

These plans, accordingly, frequently require an extensive duty as far as hierarchical assets to be executed. Holbeche (2005) similarly perceives that “in numerous associations performance appraisals are relied upon to satisfy various capacities including input, drilling, objective setting, expertise improvement, pay determination, lawful documentation, worker correlation, and cutback choice and ‘no execution evaluation framework can meet all these ends” (p. 20). The procedure is additionally thought to be excessively mind-boggling, tedious, and bureaucratic.

Process execution

An appraisal is undertaken to the workers and in this manner does not have the anticipated effect on them. It has minimal perceived quality or importance for workers. Holbeche (2005) developed a criterion for performance examination to be participative from the representative’s perspective. He appeared in a meta-examination of 27 studies that involved the candidate in the performance evaluation is connected with more elevated amounts of acknowledgment of the evaluation and fulfillment with the procedure.

Manager’s part

Line directors are not dedicated, somewhat due to this system of administration, but rather additionally because the framework is not sold all around, or bolstered by more extensive administration culture. They make a halfhearted effort. Managers don’t have the right stuff to work appraisal adequately, either in judging execution or taking care of troublesome discussions, particularly with poor performers.

Employees’ relative execution can never be measured dispassionately or decently. Even though the administrator’s judgment is watchful and proof-based, the objectives are not similarly difficult to accomplish and don’t cover all parts of the employment. Putting more exertion into precise execution estimation is a dream.

The supervisor’s impression of a representative’s performance may not be exceptionally substantial, just because they don’t have enough data and don’t see all parts of their performance. They may likewise be one-sided by enjoying or loathing the individual or by bias. The managers may not generally be the best individual to bolster a worker in investigating their performance and improvement.

Performance evaluations have turned out to be progressively hard to regulate as a result of administration delayering. If a supervisor has different subordinates, it gets to be unthinkable for them to personally know the execution and advancement needs of all their immediate reports.

Improving the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisals

The E-reward overview of 2005 highlights various conditions for accomplishment in performance examination, demonstrating that disentanglement and the utilization of capabilities are among the most widely recognized measures connected to enhance the existing frameworks (Gretchen & Porath, 2012). Further circumstances for achievement stem from these, for instance, rearrangements of frameworks can be upheld by building up more normal survey groups; however, to guarantee these groupings are important and give a discussion to quality discourse, supervisors should be equipped for directing helpful examinations and be focused on the procedure. It could be contended this capacity and responsibility ought to be driven by the senior initiative.

Incomparable to this is the need to coordinate the performance administration process with the way of life of an association and similarly tailor the procedure to the changing needs of various representatives. One way associations are endeavoring to connect with workers with the performance administration procedure is to utilize innovation to make the procedure more agreeable and open. These components require harmonization and the procedure should be checked to guarantee it is fit for reacting to changing business circumstances.

Simplification

As depicted before, performance appraisal inside associations can endeavor to satisfy a wide range of purposes. Whilst there has been a more prominent utilization of information measures, for example, abilities and more selection of self-improvement, there is still more advance to be made as for procedure rearrangements. A survey done on performance management found that over a fourth of respondents thought performance administration kept on being bureaucratic and tedious. One could contend that the very augmentation of the reason for execution evaluation to incorporate a more extensive based appraisal has added to its multifaceted nature.

Viable evaluation frameworks are inseparably connected to the control over the multifaceted nature of the plan. Holbeche (2005) explains “the expanding unpredictability of a portion of the frameworks may be a hindrance; to make the procedure work, chiefs themselves must be spurred to need to utilize it” (p. 47). The report recommends that an imperative component of compelling performance administration is easy to use.

Clients fulfilled by their performance survey framework trusted it didn’t cover excessively numerous reasons to be viable, independent of what number of destinations it was attempting to accomplish, and whether it was isolated from evaluation for pay or not. While over-burdening showed up a valuable idea, it is an impression of over-burdening that matters.

Great practice in performance examination frameworks is that they ought to have clear points and be easy to comprehend and work. They ought to likewise have their primary center to all chiefs’ execution objectives and be firmly united to a reasonable and resourced preparation and advancement base. Planning a framework that fulfills clients may urge them to utilize it adequately. Gretchen and Porath (2012) proposed that de-messing execution evaluation could best be accomplished by going further still by concentrating on definite client results.

They contend that mind-boggling performance administration frameworks will regularly confound instead of illuminate chiefs and representatives because of the mix of complex procedures, contend the frameworks, and various dashboards which frequently don’t give the data that is significant and accordingly makes the measures of execution unessential. Holbeche (2005) additionally expresses that “characterizing and comprehension the performance administration process and also building up the establishments of execution administration are key strides in the establishments for effective execution administration” (p. 81).

Simplification of the competency link

Abilities are the descriptors of aptitudes, learning, and practices that representatives are relied upon to need to perform their parts viable in business. A review of 100 of the Saudi’s biggest managers demonstrated that appraisal frameworks are broadly utilized, with seven in ten associations evaluating representatives once every year, and abilities were a typical part (Holbeche, 2005). Performance and improvement needs were observed to be measured against abilities in 58% of these associations and most by far of associations studied an expected set of responsibilities was accommodated the employments being appraised.

Work has a typical meaning of assignments that are the same to whoever completes them, while a role is a more extensive meaning of necessities covering the commitment individuals make in accomplishing goals, mirroring the diverse commitment people make, and also the motivation behind what they are doing. This move has bolstered the incorporation of skills in appraisal and advancement forms. It has additionally urged a few businesses to connect work errands and competency improvement in a solitary part profile record.

A simplified case of this incorporated part profile design from an FMCG company is in Figure 2.1 underneath. The single record is utilized for the expected set of responsibilities and employment assessment purposes, and also to distinguish competency necessities and aptitudes advancement planning. An examination structure is shot onto it concentrating on yearly destinations and execution against them. The spread of more viable human resources data frameworks has implied that these diverse frameworks – of evaluation, improvement, pay, enrollment, and so forth – are less demanding to interface up and frequently can empower directors and workers to manage them all the more adequately.

Example role profile setup from large FMCG Company.
Figure 2.1: Example role profile setup from large FMCG Company.

Performance management tools in FMCG Companies in Saudi Arabia

To enhance organization culture, systems, and processes and to lay down performance objects in addition to assistance in the prioritization of resources, performance management refers to the overseeing performance appraisal to make precise use of the received information (Neely, Gregory & Platts, 2005, p. 1227).

Performance management systems must give employees autonomy within their control area, manifest cause and effect relationships, give more authority to the employees, and develop a basis for dialogue, thus enhancing steady progress and support decision-making process. Therefore, performance appraisal and performance management have a mutual relationship and cannot be disconnected, heightening the responsibility of the manager in charge of talent relationships. Nonetheless, Rodger et al. (2006, p. 15) explain that the diverse environments in different organizations and human complication tally up to a volatile blend that is very hard to predict.

According to Neely et al. (2005, p. 1229), performance appraisal is the “process of computing the efficiency and effectiveness of the precedent achievements through acquisition, composition, cataloging, examination, interpretation, and diffusion of suitable data. Phillips (2005, p. 10) provides a list of some of the measures used by some of the leading organizations and this is shown in the table below. Although these measures are not easy to grasp, they reflect the prospective success factors and challenges facing many organizations at the moment.

These measures, or the core HR issues touching on individual employees, is capable of contributing to growth, development and the sustainability of the companies at all level by providing better information about the employees which helps in making improved decisions. Also, Phillips (2005, p. 12) also observed that, even though a number of these measures are relatively old and obsolete, they all represent significant measures that can steer actions that generate new prospects and resolve problems.

Performance measurements.
Figure 2.2 Performance measurements.

Some experts have criticized performance appraisal as lacking connection to strategy, hence giving too much emphasis on internal processes (Neely et al., 2005, p. 1229). Phillips (2005, p. 16) commented on the development of talent and noted that it is becoming a more strategic decision when examining the cost to be incurred in training and development. He further argues that the most useful talent should be allocated the largest share of the training budget. Also, he recognizes the insignificance of these statements if the company has no means of gauging their workers, and suggests a scorecard approach.

Scorecard approach offers both, qualitative and quantitative measurements of contribution, and supply very important information (Phillips, 2005, p. 22). Scorecards can take different shapes and forms, yet they have attracted a wide range of users across the board. This is because they allow for an immediate evaluation of key measures and the appraisal of individual status in an organization. Thus, the scorecard has become a significant component in shaping the direction of the HR investment, performance enhancement, or making use of preventative programs to sustain good results (Phillips, 2005, p. 25).

According to Neely et al. (2005, p. 1230), employee’s scorecard has three aspects leading to employee success; attitude and culture, the abilities and the leadership, and employees’ behavior. The success statement, in this case, is based on the three elements and is directly correlated to the implementation of the company’s strategy and employee’s skills and efforts. The important point is identifying the measures that drive the strategy, which also results in a better understanding of the principle components of the most crucial positions in the organization.

Phillips (2005, p. 26) highlights the significance of differentiating job positions and human capital and term it as one of the significant characteristics in workforce management. This is the same as workers’ segmentation of talent fronted by Berger and Berger (2004, p. 25). Organizations can use position “A” to refer to the right position in terms of employees’ performance and should encourage all its workers to aim at this position. However, one of the difficulties in the implementation of talent management is the evaluation and differentiation that cause conflicts among employees especially in a socially democratic or a liberal environment.

Employees’ assessment has proved to be an immense and extensively researched area. However, the face value of practices, for instance, linking individual performance to several measurable variables, may seem out-of-date; practices such as developing scorecards have once more caught the attention of analysts and professionals alike. Therefore, it is more significant to ask: How do companies in Saudi Arabia assess key talent?

Organizational Culture and Performance

According to Baker (2002, p. 16), organizational culture is an array of collective fundamental presumptions that have been inculcated in a group to resolve problems of peripheral adjustment and in-house assimilation. The presumptions are sustained by a constant process of human relations. Chatman and Cha (2003, p. 25) also define organizational culture as a style, comprising of several fundamental presumptions, and the presumptions are established and developed progressively by a particular team in the process of discovering a way of adjusting to the internal and external surrounding. They add that companies are considered as cultures or entities having specific cultures. Therefore, culture can either be a component belonging to an organization or a representative of an entire organization.

Organizational culture has gained more backing as an extrapolative and expounding concept in the organizational discipline, where if well-organized and regulated is helpful as an administration instrument for organizational efficiency and performance (Baker, 2002, p. 18). Culture entails beliefs, ideals, and conducts which are present in different echelons and manifest in a broad range of features of organizational existence. One of the ways through which culture can be evident is through performance (Chatman & Cha, 2003, p. 29).

Kotter and Heskett (1992, p. 89) explain that organizational culture is a significant element in the success of any organization with a specific focus on ingenuity and novelty. This shows that organizational culture impacts how ingenious and groundbreaking solutions are promoted. In their study of the impact of organizational culture on service quality, Trivellas & Dargenidou (2009) found that different aspects of service quality were connected to a given cultural model.

They also established that organizational culture affects implicit knowledge sharing conduct productively or unproductively depending, and this depends on the type of culture. The undesirable effect is a sign that the impact of culture is not always constructive, for instance, a solid culture may be an obstacle to organizational change.

The top corporations in the world, for instance, Microsoft Corporation and Apple Inc. have been using culture to propel and maintain their upper hand in the industry. To be specific, Microsoft Corporation is well-known for its strong and competitive, which has enabled it to sustain its competitive advantage in the international market (Chatman & Cha, 2003, p. 35).

This information is corroborated by a study carried out by Abdul Rashid among Malaysian Companies, which established that organizational culture has a great influence on organizational performance (Trivellas & Dargenidou, 2009, p. 385). When asked about his company’s key to success, Dell Corporation’s founder Michael Dell explained that the company has an excellent business model that is propelled and sustained by its strong corporate culture (Rodger, Meehan & Tanner, 2006, p. 3).

Rodger et al. (2006, p. 3) believe that culture is the core of competitive advantage, especially when it is linked to sustainable high performance. A study conducted by Bain and Company, Inc. established that almost 80 percent of the company executives concur that culture offers the utmost competitive advantage. Nearly all of them believe that a company that does not have a performance culture is destined to fail (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 4).

At this point where organizations have branches all over the world, culture is the adhesive that fastens a multifaceted business together. It instigates devotion among workers and inspires teamwork. It influences individuals to do the right thing, not merely the simple stuff. At organizations with a winning culture, employees not only recognize their duties and responsibilities but also why it is important to carry out those duties and responsibilities (Trivellas & Dargenidou, 2009, p. 387).

Sustainable Performance

Sustainability is an idea that had been all over the place for nearly two decades, and although everyone has been interpreting it differently, it appears that a common definition has been reached. Baets and Oldenboom (2008, p. 5) define sustainability as any form of development that strives to fulfill the basic necessity of the current generation without affecting the capability of the forthcoming generation to fulfill their basic necessity.

This definition touches on three fundamental aspects, that is, the economic aspect, environmental aspect, and societal aspect. It also incorporates the time and interval aspect, and statutory aspect. As a result, this definition presents a provisional and durable feature. Companies need short-term efficacy to continue being attractive to stakeholders, and all together need long-term efficiency to attract prospective investors (Baets & Oldenboom, 2008, p. 6).

Sustainability demands a comprehensive change in all facets of human activities, for instance, global view, social values, technical knowhow, and authority among others. On the other hand, sustainable performance refers to a performance that strives for a balance in the course of relations between the organization and the holding capability of the shareholders and the surrounding so that the organization is capable of expressing its full prospects without badly and irrevocably impacting the holding capability of the shareholders and the surroundings on which it hinges on. Sustainable performance is a concept that simply finds an ideological foundation in a rounded understanding of management.

From a classical viewpoint, there is no need for a time interval for an organization to be maintainable, save for individual (or business) inspiration.

Generally, businesses are run and directed by individuals. It is through these individuals that targets are set and objectives attained. Therefore, the performance of any business entity depends on the aggregate performance of its workforce. The success of a business entity will thus depend on its ability to accurately measure the performance of each personnel and apply it without prejudice to optimize their contribution. Individual performance can be described as an account of results produced by an individual in a given task.

The assessment of a member of staff’s performance shows his/her contribution towards the organization’s goals or objectives. In the last decade, a massive change in approaches to performance measurement has been witnessed. There has been an immense realization that is more significant to emphasize describing, strategizing, and managing performance than simply evaluating or appraising performance.

The capacity of an organization to maintain the conveyance of excellence goods and services is critical for its long-run survival. Many experts believe that this capability is acquirable competence. If the capability to sustain organizational performance is an acquirable competence, then why do various businesses fail to acquire these competencies? According to Holbeche (2005, p. 21), there are an array of fundamental elements that propel the company’s capability to sustain high performance, which include the executive’s discernment of the marketplace, collective dream, values, and approaches that are in line with the actualities of the marketplace, congruent leadership, supportive infrastructure, and workers conduct that fulfills clients’ needs. Figure 2 shows the elements of a sustainable performance culture.

Elements of a sustainable performance culture.
Figure 2.3 Elements of a sustainable performance culture.

To succeed, business structures, procedures, and interactive arrangements should constantly and completely be in line with the sort of market the company is supposed to serve. Who are the prospective clients and what do they want? What type of business does the company need to develop to preserve lucrative clients? These are the types of queries that the executive should be ready to respond to. By Kotter & Heskett (1992), a high performing business demands that organizational structures and systems must be in line with the market necessities. The company’s foresight, idea statement, values, and policies are the basis on which the structures and systems are established. Numerous messages are embedded in the above statements. They convey to individuals what is expected from them by the organization.

More significantly, they convey to the company executives what are expected to be achieved and means of achieving a given task. It is very easy to underestimate the concepts of idea statements and values, but studies conducted by Baum, Locke, and Kirkpactrick (1998) demonstrated that the path in which the idea statement and values of the association are outlined and conveyed affects the bottom-line. Organizations’ vision articulations that were particularly focused toward a particular end and underscored development and learning, outdid those that were less prudently made and conveyed (Baum, Locke & Kirkpactrick, 1998, p. 49).

Sustainable performance culture also demands leaders who are more change centered. These types of leaders place more emphasis on the development of clear visions and motivate others to follow the vision. Therefore, change-centered leaders act as an inspiration for change for general employees (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 8). According to Rodger et al. (2006, p. 4), besides the participative style of leadership, clear mission and vision are likely to promote innovative responses, creativity, willingness to take risks, and streamlining of the organizational processes. As a result, a paradigm shift in leadership took place and this led to the emergence of new leadership theories such as transformational and charismatic leadership.

Even though the terms charismatic and transformational leadership are normally used interchangeably, some studies have tried to make a distinction between them, with charismatic leadership being a subset of transformational leadership. As an inspiration for change, transformational leaders bring performance beyond expectancy by inculcating pride, facilitating creativity, offering inspiration, and communicating individual respect (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 8).

Charismatic and transformational leadership view innovation as one of their topmost agenda toward the realization of a perfect business model. Many studies have found out that training and development is the main instrument for breaking new ground and sustaining performance culture. The best design and strategy in professional training must be all-inclusive, continuous, and should integrate training with other elements of the organizations (Rodger et al., 2006, p. 9).

Methodology

Introduction

As the previous chapters have outlined, it is evident at this point that the major purpose of this research is to: one, gather the statistics on the depiction of domestic violence against women versus the depiction of domestic violence against women and two, to establish the reason for this phenomenon. It is, therefore, imperative to outline the step-by-step approach followed by the research process in answering these questions and that is the major theme of this chapter.

Considering the term ‘methodology’, provides the method for seeking or taking care of the problem in research. Noting unanswered inquiries or investigating which, as of now, does not exist, is considered to research. The chapter is divided into sections that layout the paradigm around which the studies have been conducted, the research design, the methods of data collection and collation, and the validity of the findings.

Based on the nature of the research, two paradigms complement each other in the pursuit of answers to the problem statements. First and foremost, there is a need to establish the statistics on media depiction of domestic violence in the British news media, and this can be best established through the positivistic paradigm. It is important to realize that the method of data collection, which will be discussed later in the chapter, was exclusively through content analysis.

The positivistic paradigm, therefore, was the best approach in gathering quantitative data with regards to the relative numbers of the two dependent variables. By coding the data on the incidence of the nature of articles in online archives of the selected news organizations, it would be easy to get the ratios just by counting. The paradigm’s approach that emphasizes observation rather than ideological stance is the reason why it proves indispensable for this phase of the research.

Research Methodology is an approach to discover the aftereffect of a given issue on a particular matter or issue that likewise alludes as a problem in research. In Methodology, analyst utilizes diverse methods for comprehending and looking at the given problem in research. Diverse sources use a distinctive sort of strategies for taking care of the issue. The research methodology is a cautious examination or requests particularly through the quest for new realities in any branch of learning (Zikmund, 2003).

Research philosophy

The second phase of the research is grounded upon the evaluation of the data gathered from the first phase of the research. The use of the critical theory for this phase and more specifically ideological critique suffices, and this is due to the practical interest warranted by an understanding of the meaning behind the resultant situation. Unlike in the previous phase, many approaches would have been used in interpreting the data. However, the critical theory presents a succinct method of research that is necessitated by the already vast diversity of opinion by previous scholars on media behavior. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews which lie under the naturalistic paradigm would have been alternate methods of research but presumptively would not be as comprehensive as ideological critique.

Secondly, the limited time frame of this research and the nature of the work of the supposed population would have limited the efficiency of the research. Paradigm is a particular state of mind about directing an exploration. It is not entirely a procedure, but rather all the more a logic that aides how the exploration is to be led (Wagner, 2009). Research philosophy and logic contains different variables, for example, the state of mind of an individual, his point of view, the assortment of convictions towards reality, and so on.

The second phase, therefore, evaluates the existing theories and opinions from the already existing paradigms. Research philosophy refers to the improvement of the research foundation, research information, and its tendency. It is additionally characterized by the assistance of the research paradigm.

Positivism

This idea is specifically connected with objectivism. With this philosophical methodology, researchers give their perspective to assess the social world with the offer of objectivity set up of subjectivity. This implies the analysts are intrigued to gather general data and information from a substantial social example as opposed to assessing subtle elements of the examination. As indicated by this position, the analyst’s particular convictions have no worth to impact the exploration study. The positivist philosophical methodology is for the most part connected with the perceptions and analysis to gather numeric information (Wagner, 2009).

Interpretivism

This can allude to the social constructionism when focusing on research management. As per this philosophical methodology, examination offer significance to their convictions and worth to give a satisfactory defense for a problem in research (Wagner, 2009). With the assistance of interpretivism, scientists center to emphasize the genuine statistical data points as indicated by the problem in research. Interpretivism comprehends particular business circumstances. In this methodology, analysts utilize a sample and assess them in point of interest to comprehend the perspectives of the population.

Authenticity

Realism (or authenticity) predominantly gathers in the truth and convictions in nature. Two primary methodologies are immediate and basic authenticity. Immediate reality implies the tangible attributes that a person can see, touch, or feel. Then again, in basic authenticity, people contend about their encounters for a specific circumstance (Wagner, 2009). This is connected with the circumstance of social constructivism because a person tries to demonstrate his convictions and qualities.

Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

Qualitative research, commonly known as subjective research is a form of exploratory examination (Zikmund, 2003). It is utilized to pick up a comprehension of hidden reasons, sentiments, and inspirations. It gives bits of knowledge into the issue or creates thoughts or speculations for potential quantitative examination. Subjective research is additionally used to reveal patterns in thought and sentiments and plunge more profound into the issue. The subjective information accumulation systems vary utilizing unstructured or semi-organized methods. Some regular routines incorporate focus groups, individual meetings, and cooperation or perceptions. The sample size is ordinarily little, and respondents are chosen to satisfy a given share (Zikmund, 2003).

Quantitative research is utilized to evaluate the issue by a method for producing numerical information or information that can be changed into usable insights. It is utilized to evaluate states of mind, suppositions, practices, and other characterized variables – and sum up results from a bigger sample of the population. Quantitative Research utilizes quantifiable information to plan actualities and reveal designs in the examination. Quantitative information accumulation routines are considerably more organized than qualitative information gathering strategies. Quantitative information gathering techniques incorporate different types of overviews – online studies, paper reviews, phone interviews, longitudinal studies, site interceptors, online surveys, and orderly perceptions.

Criteria for research design

Primary exploration addresses objective issues. The association requesting the examination has the overall control of the procedure and the exploration is shaped similarly as its destinations and degree are concerned. The organization taking the research can be requested to focus their attempts to discover information concerning a particular market instead of fixation on the mass business sector. The elucidation of information is better in primary exploration.

The gathered information can be analyzed and translated by the advertisers relying upon their needs as opposed to depending on the elucidation made by authorities of optional information. Normally auxiliary information is not all that late and it may not be particular to the spot or circumstance that the advertiser is focusing on. Primary research turns into a more precise device since the researcher can utilize the information that is helpful for him. The data collector in primary research is the proprietor of that data and he need not impart it to different organizations and contenders. This gives an advantage over contenders answering optional information (Zikmund, 2003).

Gathering information utilizing primary exploration is an expensive affair as the advertiser must be included all through and needs to outline everything. Due to the comprehensive nature of the activity, the period needed to do research precisely is long when contrasted with secondary information, which can be gathered in much lesser time length. If the exploration includes taking feedback, there are high risks that the input given is not right. Criticisms by their essential nature are normally one-sided or given only for it. Apart from cost and time, different assets like HR and materials too are required in a bigger amount to do studies and information accumulation (Zikmund, 2003).

Research Design

The research design is the output of a progression of choices of the researcher in regards to how the study will be directed. The research design is nearly connected with the system of the study and aides making arrangements for executing the study (Zikmund, 2003). It is an outline for directing the study that emphasizes control over variables that could meddle with the legitimacy of the discoveries. The research designs differ as to the amount of structure the analyst forces on the examination circumstance and the amount of adaptability is permitted once the study is ongoing. Many quantitative studies have more structured research designs than qualitative studies, which have more fluid research designs.

In line with the main objective of this study which is to analyze the use of performance management tools in FMCG Companies in Saudi Arabia: A case study of applying key performance indicators, this study employed a cross-sectional research design. Under this design, 400 respondents were targeted. They were issued with questionnaires to assist with data collection. The respondents were assured of the confidentiality of their participation.

Descriptive exploratory design

Many studies of a survey can adopt a descriptive research design or an exploratory research design. Depiction can be a noteworthy motivation behind both subjective and quantitative explorations. The descriptive research design enables the specialist to acquire data regarding any phenomenon. Exploratory studies give an inside and out an investigation of a solitary procedure. On the other hand, the descriptive research design analyses the attributes of a particular populace. Both exploratory research design and descriptive research design start with the problem statement.

Detailed analysis approach

Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The questionnaires were issued to 600 respondents who were mainly elderly tourists. The questionnaire was composed of five parts. Part one purposed to obtain information regarding the personal attributes of the respondents. Part two purposed to obtain information relating to the travel behavior of the tourists and the characteristics of the trip. Part three purposed to obtain information regarding the opinions of the elderly tourists concerning their travel motivations. A five-point Likert scale (1 – strongly disagree to 5 – strongly agree) was utilized to measure the tourists’ opinions regarding their travel motivation.

Part four purposed to capture information relating to 17 characteristics of the travel requirements. The elderly tourists were asked to give a rating concerning the relevance of each characteristic of travel, paying attention to their desired destination. A five-point Likert scale (1 – strongly disagree to 5 – strongly agree) was utilized to measure the important variable. Part five purposed to obtain information concerning satisfaction that the elderly tourists derived from the 17 characteristics of travel requirements that were touched on by part four. After collecting the data, the validity of the questionnaires was analyzed by two tourist professionals and two qualified lecturers from a tourism business school.

A pre-test or a pilot test of the questionnaires was conducted and it involved a sample of 150 respondents. The pre-test of the questionnaires was very beneficial in enhancing the validity and the reliability of the questionnaires. The questionnaires’ reliability was evaluated by estimating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, which was found to be 0.9354, suggesting that the questionnaires were very reliable to be used as the preferred instrument for collecting data.

There were; however, minor corrections that were done after the pre-test to prevent future errors (Wagner, 2009). The subsequent assortment of contextual investigation exploration has long had an unmistakable spot in numerous orders and callings, extending from science, humanities, human science, and political science to training, medical science, social administration, and managerial science.

In doing contextual analysis, the ‘case’ being concentrated on may be an individual, association, occasion, or activity, existing at a particular point (Zikmund, 2003). A contextual (or a case study) analysis includes a very close and point by point analysis of a subject (the case), and also its related logical conditions. Contextual investigations show up with incredible recurrence all through well-known works. Almost anybody with training can make a case for having done a contextual investigation sooner or later in their life. Contextual analyses additionally can be delivered by taking after a formal exploration technique (Zikmund, 2003).

Population and Sampling

The aggregate gathering of subjects that meet an assigned arrangement of criteria is called a population. There is a refinement between the target populace and the available populace. The target populace incorporates every one of the cases about which the scientist might want to make speculations. The available populace involves every one of the cases that fit in with the assigned criteria and are open to the scientist as available literature.

The procedure for selecting a bit of the populace to reflect the whole populace is a sampling (Wagner, 2009). Exploratory outline requires little examples that are picked through a deliberative procedure to reflect the wanted populace. In subjective exploration, people are chosen to partake in the examination given their direct experience of the problem statement (Wagner, 2009). In line with this survey, the population comprised of the employees of the organization under investigation. They were an excellent choice because their profiles fit the setting of this research, and also they had enough experience in the organization.

Not at all like quantitative examination, there is no compelling reason to haphazardly select people, because control and speculation of discoveries are not the expectations of the study (Wagner, 2009). Purposive inspecting, a technique that includes the choice of persons who speak to the population of interest was, therefore, utilized in this study. This is a non-likelihood testing technique which includes the choice of specific subjects to be incorporated into the. With the end goal of this period of the study, respondents were chosen because they were workers of the association under study. The study had a sum of 169 members.

Even though this methodology expands the likelihood of population samples that do not represent the whole population, it gave the main method for reaching all the respondents. Since no official registers or records were containing the names of the workers, the specialist chose to utilize snowball testing to distinguish the respondents. Purposive testing and snowball inspecting are connected and have one shared factor: the general population most suitable to interact with on the examination trip is chosen at the time they are required. Snowball testing is important in the subjective examination because it is coordinated by people that are hard to distinguish (Wagner, 2009).

Data Collection and Instrumentation

The researcher used questionnaires for data collection. A total of 169 questionnaires were completed by the target respondents. The questions in the questionnaire are attached in Appendix 1. Adopting this method of administration validates the need to minimize the cost of the study. This is because respondents are geographically separated (Wagner, 2009).

Questionnaire Survey

Questionnaires are pre-arranged courses of action on a request that require the respondents to record their reactions as a general rule in solidly portrayed alternatives. Questionnaires can be used to contact the respondents either through the mail or by face to face meeting. Before delineating a survey, there are three standards to pay thought on, these models, consolidate benchmarks of wording, principles of estimation, and the general set-up of the study. The rule of the substance includes the substance and purpose of the request, for instance, the pro needs to fathom the method for variables to be tapped.

On the off chance that a variable is subjective, for instance, customer support where a respondent’s conviction, perceptions, and perspectives are to be measured, the request should draw the estimations and parts of the thoughts. Also, where target variables, for instance, age and pay are tapped, a single direct question would be legitimate. The wording and vernacular are distinctive segments of the guideline of substance, for instance, the tongue of the overview should estimate the level of perception of respondents. Therefore, the choice of words should depend on the level of guidelines of the respondents.

The rule of estimation encompasses the models to be taken over to ensure that the data accumulated is fitting to test the theories. These norms consolidate request, which includes the similarity of negative request to wind up positive issues, coding, using scales and scaling strategies, and steadfastness and authenticity. Constancy exhibits how relentless and solid the instrument taps the variable. The general set up of the study conceals the preface to respondents, the length of the survey, headings for completing, and the general appearance of the study (Wagner, 2009).

Data Analysis and Presentation

Out of the population of one hundred articles chosen by simple random sampling, data on the article will be collected and classified into the six facets outlined in the research design. The prominence of the news story will be examined based on the number of words used and the characters involved. Articles about celebrities and politicians, for example, were deemed more prominent than the others.

This data would be coded through Excel to get the statistics. The second phase of the research warrants a literary scan of the theories on domestic violence and its relationship to journalistic depiction, and this was done through literature and video analyses of the theoretical frameworks of the resultant phenomenon. The collected data were entered into an excel sheet before further analysis by SPSS. Statistical techniques of analysis were utilized (Wagner, 2009).

Ethical considerations

The validity of the data represents the data integrity and it connotes that the data is accurate and much consistent. Validity has been explained as a descriptive evaluation of the association between actions and interpretations and empirical evidence deduced from the data. More precaution was taken especially when a comparison was made between the tourists’ commitment and attitude. The reliability of the data is the outcome of a series of actions that commences with the proper explanation of the issues to be resolved. This may push on to a clear recognition of the yardsticks concerned.

It contains the target samples to be chosen, the proper sampling strategy and the sampling methods to be employed. Just before the study was conducted, the researcher first developed a proposal and submitted it for approval. The proposal entailed the overview and the aims of the study. Also, the proposal entailed how the respondents of the research would be recruited and handled. The responses of the participants will be treated with confidentiality to respect and uphold the welfare and the right to privacy of the participants. Once the approval was given, the researcher went ahead to research while adhering to the stipulated guidelines (Wagner, 2009).

Limitation of data collection methods

There have been a lot of concerns on additional budgetary expenses for the collection of the data, regardless of whether the gathered data is genuine or not and whether there may be an explicit conclusion when interpreting and analyzing the data. Also, some tourists were reluctant to offer some information they deemed confidential and unsafe in the hands of their competitors. This posed a great challenge to the research as the researcher had to take a longer time to find other tourists who were willing to give out adequate information.

Findings, data analysis, and interpretation

Introduction

As has been outlined in the previous chapters, this section provides data on the actual figures about the depiction of domestic violence against men. The two-pronged approach presents the findings on the frequency of stories on male battering in the selected British media before proceeding to conduct an evaluative interpretation of these figures through the lens of existing paradigms.

This segment covers the examination of the information, presentation, and understanding. The outcomes were dissected utilizing SPPS, ANOVA, relapse, and connection examination. As the previous chapters have outlined, it is evident at this point that the major purpose of this research is to: one, gather the statistics on the depiction of domestic violence against women versus the depiction of domestic violence against women and two, to establish the reason for this phenomenon.

It is, therefore, imperative to outline the step-by-step approach followed by the research process in answering these questions and that is the major theme of this chapter. The chapter is divided into sections that layout the paradigm around which the studies have been conducted, the research design, the methods of data collection and collation, and the validity of the findings.

The two-pronged approach

First and foremost, there is a need to establish the statistics on media depiction of domestic violence in the British news media, and this can be best established through the positivistic paradigm. It is important to realize that the method of data collection, which will be discussed later in the chapter, was exclusively through content analysis. The positivistic paradigm, therefore, was the best approach in gathering quantitative data with regards to the relative numbers of the two dependent variables.

By coding the data on the incidence of the nature of articles in online archives of the selected news organizations, it would be easy to get the ratios just by counting. The paradigm’s approach that emphasizes observation rather than ideological stance is the reason why it proves indispensable for this phase of the research.

The second phase of the research is grounded upon the evaluation of the data gathered from the first phase of the research. The use of the critical theory for this phase and more specifically ideological critique suffices, and this is due to the practical interest warranted by an understanding of the meaning behind the resultant situation. Unlike in the previous phase, many approaches would have been used in interpreting the data.

However, the critical theory presents a succinct method of research that is necessitated by the already vast diversity of opinion by previous scholars on media behavior. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews which lie under the naturalistic paradigm would have been alternate methods of research but presumptively would not be as comprehensive as ideological critique. Secondly, the limited time frame of this research and the nature of the work of the supposed population would have limited the efficiency of the research. The second phase, therefore, evaluates the existing theories and opinions from the already existing paradigms.

The research design

The study is conducted on four of the major news organizations: Daily Mail, Mirror, the Guardian, and The Telegraph. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations report on the national dailies (2008), Mirror was the tabloid with the highest circulation; Telegraph was the highest selling quality newspaper and was therefore selected due to their expansive reach. Guardian was chosen to incorporate broadsheets into the research and the Daily Mail because of its increasing popularity — from the report.

As mentioned earlier, the collection of data was carried out through content analysis using the conceptual analysis approach whereby all articles on domestic violence would be retrieved from online archives, and this would be regarded as the population. Consequently, random sampling would be conducted on the resultant population to collect five stories each from 2005-2015. This would be done for all of the four news organizations to obtain one hundred articles which would be coded (using Excel) as follows:

  • Title of the article;
  • The year;
  • The victim (whether male or female);
  • The perpetrator (whether male or female);
  • The severity;
  • Prominence.

For the second phase of the research, various theoretical frameworks and opinions would be cross-referenced against the obtained results to explain the phenomena.

Data collection and collation

Out of the population of one hundred articles chosen by simple random sampling, data on the article will be collected and classified into the six facets outlined in the research design. The prominence of the news story will be examined based on the number of words used and the characters involved. Articles about celebrities and politicians, for example, were deemed more prominent than the others.

This data would be coded through Excel to get the statistics. The second phase of the research warrants a literary scan of the theories on domestic violence and its relationship to journalistic depiction, and this was done through literature and video analyses of the theoretical frameworks of the resultant phenomenon. It might be worth noting that this method of data collection has been used successfully by Catherine Corrigall-Brown in her project about the media framing of protests (Corrigall-Brown, 2012).

Validity, reliability, and ethics

The findings of this research are based on the assumption that the online archives provide the entirety of the articles published by the various news organizations and that most of the informed opinions on the resultant findings are covered in theory and other outlooks that will be analyzed in the research. The study is therefore heavily reliant on secondary sources and their accuracy. Due to the nature of the research, there was no need for ethics approval.

Characteristics of the sample

To comprehend the demographic information of the participants, the distribution of gender, age, education level, income, and the number of years employed in the business are summarized in the following sections.

Gender

Table 1:Gender distribution
gender N=400
female 44%
male 56%
Total 100%

Age

Table 2: Age distribution
age N= 400
18-25 2%
26-35 42%
36-45 31%
46-55 18%
above 55 7%
Total 100%

Education level

Table 3: Education distribution
education N=400
High school or below 9%
Diploma 13%
Bachelor degree 32%
Postgraduate degree or above 46%
Total 100%

Number of years employed

Table 5: Number of years employed
Times N= 400
less than 3 years 19%
4-7 years 21%
7-10 years 22%
more than 10 years 38%
Total 100%

Reliability Analysis

Reliability analysis is often used to evaluate whether the multiple instrument items are measuring the same variable or concept. In SPSS, the Cronbach’s Alpha value is normally used to measure the reliability of the various variables. The minimum requirement for the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is 0.7 to ensure that the items are internally consistent and reliable. In an exploratory study, the Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.6 can also be accepted.

In this study, the various measurement items are adopted from previous studies, thus, the minimum value is set as 0.7. The corrected-item total correlation (CITC) is also included to evaluate the reliability of the individual item. If the CICT is below 0.5, then the item cannot reliably measure the corresponding variable and should be excluded from further analysis (Hair et al. 2006). The Cronbach’s Alpha if item deleted indicate whether the Cronbach’s Alpha value is decreased or increased after excluded this item. Thus, if this value is above the Cronbach’ Alpha value for the variable, the item should then be excluded from further analysis. The Cronbach’s Alpha for variables is summarized in table 6 below.

Table 6 Reliability Analysis for Variables.

Variables Item CITC Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted Cronbach’s Alpha
Effective management performance V1 0.578 0.912 0.765
V2 0.714 0.802
V3 0.698 0.761
Creating empowerment and authority V4 0.597 0.687 0.674
V5 0.860 0.874
V6 0.465 0.765
V7 0.563 0.806
Increasing leadership capability V8 0.611 0.702 0.625
V9 0.754 0.965
V10 0.578 0.764
Customer-centric strategy V11 0.701 0.634 0.678
V12 0.620 0.761
V13 0.586 0.694
Increasing communication and collaboration V14 0.770 0.872 0.809
V15 0.780 0.649
V16 0.631 0.801
V17 0.777 0.630
V18 0.987 0.864
Enhancing training and development V19 0.709 0.751 0.864
V20 0.876 0.786
V21 0.694 0.767
Sustainable performance culture V22 0.723 0.750 0.642
V23 0.691 0.782
V24 0.684 0.895

According to the results, the Cronbach’s alpha value for effective management performance, creating empowerment and authority, increasing leadership capability, customer-centric strategy, increasing communication and collaboration, enhancing training and development, and sustainable performance culture are 0.836, 0.817, 0.761, 0.739, 0.898, 0.833, and 0.837, which are all above the minimum requirement of 0.7. Also, the CICT for individual items is all above the minimum requirement of 0.5, and the Cronbach’s Alpha, if deleted for individual items, are all below the Cronbach’s Alpha value. These results demonstrate that these items are internally consistent and reliable, and can be used for further analysis.

Frequency analysis

Effective management performance frequency analysis

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
The company applies a merit-based system to determine the top performers 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.5091
2.Disagree 4%
3.Neutral 22%
4.Agree 50%
5.Strongly Agree 12%
The company has a fair reward system 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.6710
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 32%
4.Agree 44%
5.Strongly Agree 10%
The company has clear goals and objectives 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.6568
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 32%
4.Agree 44%
5.Strongly Agree 13%
Total 100% 3.765

Creating empowerment and authority frequency analysis

Table 8 creating empowerment and authority frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
The company reacts to the changes in the business sector 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.7910
2.Disagree 6%
3.Neutral 23%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 20%
The company diversifies its products to have a competitive edge 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.5876
2.Disagree 6%
3.Neutral 30%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 13%
The business should strive to meet the customers’ needs 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.4876
2.Disagree 7%
3.Neutral 32%
4.Agree 42%
5.Strongly Agree 17%
The company engages the customer base to enhance the brand 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.9053
2.Disagree 4%
3.Neutral 20%
4.Agree 50%
5.Strongly Agree 23%
Total 100% 3.8754

Increasing leadership capability frequency analysis

Table 9 increasing leadership capability frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
The company provides regular motivation to employees 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.7654
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 22%
4.Agree 42%
5.Strongly Agree 27%
The mission of the company is clear to all employees 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.6427
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 16%
4.Agree 53%
5.Strongly Agree 23%
The company inculcates a culture of trust and mutual respect 1.Strongly Disagree 4% 3.9873
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 11%
4.Agree 42%
5.Strongly Agree 38%
Total 100% 3.98

Customer-centric strategy frequency analysis

Table 10 Customer-centric strategy frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
The employees are reliable and helpful 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.7653
2.Disagree 2%
3.Neutral 37%
4.Agree 35%
5.Strongly Agree 25%
The employees are professional 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 4.1086
2.Disagree 3%
3.Neutral 16%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 31%
The employees respond to the customers’ inquiries quickly 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.8241
2.Disagree 4%
3.Neutral 24%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 21%
Total 100% 3.6732

Increasing communication and collaboration frequency analysis

Table 11 increasing communication and collaboration frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
There is coordinated communication 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.6543
2.Disagree 3%
3.Neutral 28%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 20%
The top managers understand the effectiveness of communication 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.7641
2.Disagree 6%
3.Neutral 20%
4.Agree 51%
5.Strongly Agree 20%
There is enough follow up for the communication 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.4321
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 22%
4.Agree 54%
5.Strongly Agree 17%
The problems are solved collaboratively 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.7692
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 31%
4.Agree 50%
5.Strongly Agree 13%
The trust levels among the employees are strong 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.7643
2.Disagree 3%
3.Neutral 28%
4.Agree 48%
5.Strongly Agree 20%
Total 100% 3.6875

Enhancing training and development frequency analysis

Table 12 enhancing training and development frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
The company invests in training and development 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.1436
2.Disagree 4%
3.Neutral 22%
4.Agree 50%
5.Strongly Agree 12%
The company sets up the employees for success 1.Strongly Disagree 2% 3.8764
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 32%
4.Agree 44%
5.Strongly Agree 10%
The employees’ talents as assets to the company 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.3352
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 32%
4.Agree 44%
5.Strongly Agree 13%
Total 100% 3.7659

Sustainable performance culture frequency analysis

Table 13 Sustainable performance culture frequency analysis.

Question Response N= 400 Mean score
Good communication promotes sustainable performance in the organization 1.Strongly Disagree 1% 3.4286
2.Disagree 8%
3.Neutral 22%
4.Agree 42%
5.Strongly Agree 27%
Effective management promotes sustainable performance in the organization 1.Strongly Disagree 3% 3.7754
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 16%
4.Agree 53%
5.Strongly Agree 23%
Employee empowerment promotes sustainable performance in the organization 1.Strongly Disagree 4% 3.9506
2.Disagree 5%
3.Neutral 11%
4.Agree 42%
5.Strongly Agree 38%
Total 100% 3.6543

Correlation analysis

Correlation between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was first created in order to ensure that there was not a violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity among the data. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of effective management performance and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed.

After getting a positive correlation between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture. The results are shown in Table 14 below. The correlation value below 0.3 indicates low-level correlation; the correlation value between 0.3 and 0.6 indicates a medium level correlation, while the correlation value above 0.6 indicates high-level correlation.

There was a medium positive correlation between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0. 543, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of effective management performance are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 14 Correlation between effective management performance and sustainable performance culture.

Effective management performance Sustainable performance culture
Effective management performance Pearson Correlation 1 0.563**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 0.543** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation between creating empowerment and authority and Sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was created. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed.

After getting a positive correlation between creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture. The results are shown in Table 15 below. As can be seen in Table 15, there was a medium positive correlation between creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0. 421, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of creating empowerment and authority are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 15 Correlation between creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture.

Sustainable performance culture Creating empowerment and authority
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 1 0.432**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Creating empowerment and authority Pearson Correlation 0.421** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was created. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed.

After getting a positive correlation between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture. The results are shown in table 16 below. As can be seen from this table, there was a medium positive correlation between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0. 576, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of increasing leadership capability are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 16 Correlation between increasing leadership capability and sustainable performance culture.

Sustainable performance culture Increasing leadership capability
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 1 0.379**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Increasing leadership capability Pearson Correlation 0.576** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was created. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed. After getting a positive correlation between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture. The results are shown in table 17 below.

As can be seen from this table, there was a medium positive correlation between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0. 431, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of customer-centric strategy are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 17 Correlation between customer-centric strategy and sustainable performance culture.

Sustainable performance culture Customer-centric strategy
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 1 0.407**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Customer-centric strategy Pearson Correlation 0.431** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was created. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed. After inspected a positive correlation between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture.

The results are shown in table 18 below. As can be seen from this table, there was a medium positive correlation between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0.397, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of increasing communication and collaboration are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 18 Correlation between increasing communication and collaboration and sustainable performance culture.

Sustainable performance culture Increasing communication and collaboration
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 1 0.348**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Increasing communication and collaboration Pearson Correlation 0.397** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture

In order to check the correlation between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture, a scatterplot was created. There is a strong, positive correlation between the variables of enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture and the data is normally distributed. After getting a positive correlation between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was carried out to analyze the relationship between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture. The results are shown in table 19 below.

As can be seen from this table, there was a strong positive correlation between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture, with a correlation value of 0.654, which is significant at 0.01 levels, indicating that higher levels of enhancing training and development are associated with higher levels of sustainable performance culture.

Table 19 Correlation between enhancing training and development and sustainable performance culture.

Sustainable performance culture Enhancing training and development
Sustainable performance culture Pearson Correlation 1 0.685**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
Enhancing training and development Pearson Correlation 0. 654** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 400 400
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression analysis

Regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables (Wagner, 2009). More specifically, regression analysis is normally used to understand how the change of independent variable can affect the change of dependent variables (Wagner, 2009). The correlation analysis above indicated that there are relationships between enhancing training and development, increasing communication and collaboration, effective management performance, increasing leadership capability, customer-centric strategy, creating empowerment and authority and sustainable performance culture. In order to find out how these variables influence customer sustainable performance culture and which one has the biggest impact, the multiple linear regression analysis is used.

Table 20: Model Summary.

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin-Watson
dimension0 1 0.301 0.628 0.654 0.2084 1.975
a. Predictors: (Constant), Enhancing training and development, Increasing communication and collaboration, Effective management performance, Increasing leadership capability, Customer-centric strategy, Creating empowerment and authority
b. Dependent Variable: Sustainable performance culture

The Adjusted R Square is 0.654, which means that the independent variables of Enhancing training and development, Increasing communication and collaboration, effective management performance, increasing leadership capability, customer-centric strategy, and creating empowerment and authority can explain 65.4% of the variance of sustainable performance culture.

Table 21: ANOVA.

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 91.160 6 14.328 462.816 0.000a
Residual 5.794 166 0.064
Total 96.954 172
a. Predictors: (Constant), Enhancing training and development, Increasing communication and collaboration, Effective management performance, Increasing leadership capability, Customer-centric strategy, Creating empowerment and authority
b. Dependent Variable: Sustainable performance culture

By summarizing the ANOVA table, it can be said that the independent variables of Enhancing training and development, Increasing communication and collaboration, effective management performance, increasing leadership capability, customer-centric strategy, and creating empowerment and authority can predict the dependent variable of sustainable performance culture at a significance of 0.01, by considering F=462.816.

Conclusion and recommendations

Introduction

This part demonstrates the outline of the revelations and examination of the results in the comprehension of the objectives of this study. Finally, the segment contains conclusions and recommendations. This study is fundamental as a result of the way that it fabricates onto the available collection of data regarding the development of a sustainable performance culture in Saudi organizations. The eventual outcomes of this study are extraordinarily critical to the business proprietors in light of the way that they can use it for sorting out purposes, so they can consider evident destinations to draw in and hold a broad customer base.

Conclusion

The execution of effective performance management is among the variables that have a great impact on sustainable performance in organizations, especially the Saudi Arabian organizations. Be that as it may, many organizations still focus on inflexible, old-fashioned management strategies. The top-performing organizations, however, focus on performance that uses a fair procedure to reward the top performers. They also convey the organizational goals appropriately to the employees. These elements promote equity and inclusivity in the organization.

Creating empowerment and authority enables the companies in Saudi Arabia to reinforce the empowerment levels in all the sections of the organization’s hierarchy. In a company characterized by a lack of trust and accountability, there are low levels of empowerment and authority. A higher level of empowerment and accountability enables the organization to inculcate an innovative culture among the workforce and develop a strong relationship with the customers in order to promote product diversification and improve the customers’ experiences. Employees should be allowed to contribute to the decision-making process to improve the competitive nature of the organization.

In organizations where the employee engagement is higher through enhanced leadership capabilities, the mission is shared among all the employees regardless of their positions in the hierarchical level. The top management offers inspiration and motivation to the employees through constant communication. The top managers also inculcate a culture of trust and all the employees are included in the development of the business strategies and goals.

It is only through leadership capabilities that the organization will streamline its visions with the performance. Organizational culture is a significant element in the success of any organization with a specific focus on ingenuity and novelty. This shows that organizational culture impacts how ingenious and groundbreaking solutions are promoted. Culture is the core of competitive advantage, especially when it is linked to sustainable high performance.

Performance management demands a comprehensive change in all facets of human activities, for instance, global view, social values, technical knowhow, and authority among others. On the other hand, sustainable performance refers to a performance that strives for a balance in the course of relations between the organization and the holding capability of the shareholders and the surrounding so that the organization is capable of expressing its full prospects without badly and irrevocably impacting the holding capability of the shareholders and the surroundings on which it hinges on.

The assessment of a member of staff’s performance shows his/her contribution towards the organization’s goals or objectives. In the last decade, a massive change in approaches to performance measurement has been witnessed. There has been an immense realization that is more significant to emphasize describing, strategizing and managing performance than simply evaluating or appraising performance.

Recommendations

A performance culture is key to achieving an upper hand in the current era. In the past, having an upper edge implied having more brilliant methodologies and prevalent resources. Even though they are still vital, they are not enough. On account of globalization, in most cases free exchange of information, rivals can replicate another company’s strategy within a short period. What they cannot replicate very fast, in any case, is an excellent performance culture.

While a solid performance culture-one where each employee gives their best- can be a manageable wellspring of the upper hand, the absence of it is a noteworthy aggressive burden since it acts as an obstacle to the implementation of change.

This study provides information that is adequate for sustainable performance culture. Moreover, the ease of accessibility to the business sectors should be improved to give an easy time for the improvement of the performance. Enhancing training and development and other increasing leadership capability amenities should be upgraded so that they can be up to standard and fit the specifications and the requirements of the customers.

The top business managers make their decisions based on the available time. The business operators are striving to set up and keep up an environment that is greater for the fulfillment of consumers, who are making an effort towards the achievement of their desires. A few studies have been completed to scout the examples of the conduct of the consumers. The profiles of the consumers are different as to their likelihood to relate to a specific business.

References

Baets, W., & Oldenboom, E. (2008). Rethinking growth: social entrepreneurship for sustainable performance. Macmillan Palgrave.

Baker, K. A. (2002). Organizational Culture. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99-120.

Barney, J.B., & Hesterly, W.S. (2006). Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage: Concepts and Cases. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Baum, J.R., Locke, E.L., & Kirkpactrick, S. (1998). A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83 (1), 43-54.

Berger, L. A. & Berger, D. R. (2004). The Talent Management Handbook: Creating Organisational Excellence by Identifying, Developing and Promoting Your Best People. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chatman, J., & Cha, S. E. (2003). Leading by Leveraging Culture. California Management Review, 45, 20–34.

Coens, T., & Jenkins, M. (2000), Abolishing Performance Appraisals and What to do Instead. Sydney: Berrett-Koehler.

Gretchen, S., & Porath, C. (2012). Creating Sustainable Performance. Harvard Business Review Online, 10-20.

Holbeche, L. (2005). The high performance organization: creating dynamic stability and Human resource management. London: Routledge.

Kotter, J.P., & Heskett, J.L. (1992). Corporate Culture and Performance. Free Press.

Li, M., & Green, D. (2010). A Mediating Influence on Customer Loyalty: The Role of Perceived Value. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 1 (1), 1-12.

Neely, A., Gregory, M. & Platts, K. (2005). Performance measurement system design: A literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(12), 1228-1263.

Phillips, J. J. (2005). Investing in Your Company’s Human Capital. New York: AMACOM.

Rodger, P., Meehan, P., & Tanner, S. (2006). Building a winning culture. Amsterdam: Bain & Company, Inc.

Trivellas, P., & Dargenidou, D. (2009). Organisational culture, job satisfaction and higher education service quality: The case of Technological Educational Institute of Larissa. The TQM Journal, 21(4), 382-399.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Questionnaire

My name is XXXX, a postgraduate student at XXX University, majoring in XXXX. The aim of the survey is to comprehend the economic effects of inbound tourism in China, which is a very important topic in my research. This is an academic research study and your participation is voluntary. Information provided will be confidential and individual data will be reported. Thank you

General background information of the employees (please tick where applicable)

  • Gender
    • male;
    • female.
  • Age_______ years.
  • Job title ______________.
  • Work experience _______ years, in this organization _____ years.
  • Level of education and training
    • Diploma.
    • Higher Diploma.
    • Bachelors.
    • Masters.
  • Terms of employment;
    • Permanent.
    • Contract.

The following 25 statements describe your degree of attachment and loyalty to the organization you are now employed with. Please respond by indicating the degree to which each of the statements applies to you using the following scale:

1
Strongly
Disagree
2
Disagree
3
Slightly
Disagree
4
Neither
Agree of
Disagree
5
Slightly
Agree
6
Agree
7
Strongly
Agree

There is no right or wrong answer. Write the number that best indicates to what extent each of the statement is true or not true in the parenthesis provided at the end of each statement

  1. The company applies a merit-based system to determine the top performers.
  2. The company has a fair reward system.
  3. The company has clear goals and objectives.
  4. The company reacts to the changes in the business sector.
  5. The company diversifies its products to have a competitive edge.
  6. The business should strive to meet the customers’ needs.
  7. The company engages the customer base to enhance the brand.
  8. The company provides regular motivation to employees.
  9. The mission of the company is clear to all employees.
  10. The company inculcates a culture of trust and mutual respect.
  11. The employees are reliable and helpful.
  12. The employees are professional.
  13. The employees respond to the customers’ inquiries quickly.
  14. There is coordinated communication.
  15. The top managers understand the effectiveness of communication.
  16. There is enough follow up for the communication.
  17. The problems are solved collaboratively.
  18. The trust levels among the employees are strong.
  19. The company invests in training and development.
  20. The company sets up the employees for success.
  21. The employees’ talents as assets to the company.
  22. Good communication promotes sustainable performance in the organization.
  23. Effective management promotes sustainable performance in the organization.
  24. Employee empowerment promotes sustainable performance in the organization.
  25. The company applies a merit-based system to determine the top performers.
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IvyPanda. "Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Companies' Performance." August 30, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/fast-moving-consumer-goods-companies-performance/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Companies' Performance." August 30, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/fast-moving-consumer-goods-companies-performance/.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Companies' Performance'. 30 August.

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