The issues of gene-environment interactions are widely discussed in the field of the modern medicine in relation to the possibilities which can be provided for treating diseases with references to the factor of gene-environment interaction. Researchers pay much attention to examining the interaction between the genetic information and environmental issues as significant factors for developing or preventing definite diseases (Mikail, 2008).
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In their article “Multiple Analytical Approaches Reveal Distinct Gene-Environment Interactions in Smokers and Non Smokers in Lung Cancer”, the group of Indian researchers with Rakhshan Ihsan and Pradeep Chauhan present the results of the study which was conducted in order to analyze the correlation between genetic and environmental factors and the development of lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers.
The importance of the investigation depends on the fact the researchers have concentrated on using multiple approaches to discuss the problem.
A. The main objective of the researchers’ study was to examine the cases of lung cancer with references to the multi-analytical approach with the help of which it was possible to analyze the impact of genetic and environmental factors on the disease’s development in complex.
Moreover, the researchers have focused on examining the cancer’s pathogenetic mechanism in relation to smokers and non-smokers. It was necessary to use the multi-analytical approach in order to determine the risk factors for smokers and non-smokers separately according to the problem of gene-environment interaction (Ihsan et al., 2011).
B. To complete the objective of the study, the researchers have determined the sample of 188 persons who suffer from lung cancer. Smokers and non-smokers were included into the group. To control the results of the study, the group of 290 patients was formed. The researchers focused on studying the participants’ history of disease with references to their genotype and such negative habits as smoking (Ihsan et al., 2011).
It was important to analyze the connection between the definite genotype and the risk of lung cancer and the impact of smoking on the disease’s development. The researchers used such approaches as logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART), and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) in order to present the statistical data in relation to the correlation between genetic and environmental risk factors for the disease’s development (Ihsan et al., 2011).
Using three approaches to analyzing the study’s data, the researchers determined genotypes which are characterized by the high level of risk to lung cancer with references to such factor as smoking. According to the study’s results, smoking can be discussed as one of the most influential factors for the development of lung cancer and for worsening the patient’s state. The researchers have found that CYP1A1*2A polymorphism can be discussed as extremely risky for the development of lung cancer.
Moreover, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His types can be considered as associated with the low risks. It was also stated that smokers with EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His), SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) genotypes are also at risk to suffer from lung cancer (Ihsan et al., 2011). The usage of three approaches to analyzing the data in relation to the sample and control group is effective for providing the complex picture with references to all the aspects of the problem.
Furthermore, the researchers concentrate on determining not only the impact of smoking on the development of lung cancer but also the effect of such negative habits as tobacco chewing and betel quid chewing on lung cancer in the group of participants. Thus, the genotype distribution was analyzed with references to smoking as the influential environmental factor for causing lung cancer.
C. The previous researches in the field provide the findings according to which the risk of lung cancer’s development is based on definite individuals’ abilities to metabolize carcinogens which can be different in relation to their genotype. However, it is also important to refer to the environmental factors.
The problem is in the fact the singular investigations in relation to genetic factors or environmental factors do not provide the complex picture of the causes for the lung cancer’s development. That is why, it is significant to focus on the multi-analytical approach used for discussing the problem.
The research is useful because of the usage of multiple analytical methods for assessing the risk factors for cancer and their correlation. Thus, the interaction of xenobiotic metabolizing genes and such factors as smoking was examined.
The role of gene-environment interactions for determining the risk factors was supported with the help of several statistical approaches. The significance of the research is accentuated by the possibility to use its results for the further investigations in the field in order to determine the role of genetic and environmental factors in their interaction for provoking lung cancer’s progress.
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Moreover, the researchers emphasize the fact that their multi-approach to examining the disease’s causes is more effective in comparison with the traditional LR method (Ihsan et al., 2011). The researches’ results are useful for assessing the connection between genetic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility with references to such environmental factors as smoking.
Ihsan R., Chauhan P. S., Mishra A. K., Yadav D.S., Kaushal M., et al. (2011). Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer. PLOS ONE, 6(12), e29431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029431.
Mikail, C. N. (2008). Public health genomics: The essentials. USA: Jossey-Bass.