Validity is the level of the truthiness of a specific instrument or technique. To determine the validity of a scale, a comparison study is of great significance. If the results of a specific scale resemble the findings of other studies, then it is valid. Therefore, a comparison of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale to other measurements will take place to determine its validity.
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Gresham Behavior Rating Scale analyzes and measures behavior according to the perspective of children, parents, and teachers. Thus, it is important in service outcome evaluation as it involves the children, the parent, and the teacher reports (Gresham, 2010). The scale is useful to children of five to eighteen years. It measures intrapersonal as well as interpersonal strengths, family involvement, and school functioning. According to studies done, the scale is psychometrically sound.
As a result, it plays an imperative role in schools as well as social agencies. According to McFall (2008), the adequacy of the scale has made it valid. On the other hand, Gresham Behavior Rating Scale does not meet criterion validity. Criterion validity is the ability of a variable to predict an outcome in line with findings from other studies. According to a recent survey, a large sample interferes with the criterion validity of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale. This is because the scale produced varying results between samples with behavioral disorders and those without.
Additionally, researchers have conducted many studies to determine the convergent validity of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale. According to a study done, a correlation of eighty-eight percent existed between Gresham Behavior Rating Scale and Child Behavior Checklist (Epstein, 2008). This portrays evidence of convergent validity according to statistical significance. In another study that aimed at determining convergent reliability, a portion of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale portrayed a strong relationship with a section of the Child Behavior Checklist (Merrell, 2010).
According to the study, Gresham Behavior Rating Scale involving interpersonal strength, school as well as social functioning showed a strong relationship with the externalizing scale of the Child Behavior Checklist. On the contrary, Gresham Behavior Rating Scale involving intrapersonal strength portrayed a minute relationship with the Child Behavior Checklist (Emerson, 2010). Lastly, Gresham Behavior Rating Scale has a very high correlation with Social Skill Rating System. This is because studies have revealed that Gresham Behavior Rating Scale demonstrates a high to moderate correlation with Scales that measure competence. On the other hand, a low to medium correlation results in its comparison with scales that measure deficit.
According to Quinn (2009), Gresham Behavior Rating Scale adequately fulfills the requirements of discriminant validity. This is because Gresham Behavior Rating Scale effectively discriminates children and adolescents with behavior and learning disabilities from those without. For instance, the assessment of intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths helps in the evaluation of learning disabilities (Merrell, 2009). Besides, assessment of family involvement and school functioning is imperative in the assessment of behavioral disorders.
The preciseness of the two assessments makes the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale valuable in the test of discriminant validity. Furthermore, a close relationship exists between discriminant and content validity (Reamer, 2009). Thus, Gresham Behavior Rating Scale portrays content validity. In research done, the determination of content validity involves variable development, selection as well as validation. According to Gresham Behavior Rating Scale, parents and teachers developed evaluation criteria that were successful in discrimination of children with behavioral disorders and those without. This shows that Gresham Behavior Rating Scale is valid.
Moreover, various studies that determine the external validity of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale exist. External validity is the magnitude to which one can generalize the results of a study (Cohen, 2010).
The generalization involves population, settings as well as conditions. According to studies done, sample characteristic is a threat in the determination of external validity. This is because extraneous factors usually influence the characteristics of the sample. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the external validity of the Gresham Behavior Rating Scale. For instance, in the evaluation of behaviors of children and adolescents, an extraneous factor can interfere with the results. Therefore, the group of children and adolescents that have behavioral disorders could have something that under or controls their activities.
Finally, internal validity is the magnitude to which the findings of an intervention related to the sample and not the extraneous factors (Kauffman, 2008). In Gresham Behavior Rating Scale, internal validity is always under a compromise. This is because extraneous factors always interfere with the behaviors of adolescents and children (Rosenthal, 2008). Therefore, the treatment of the sample should take place. This involves controlling all those factors that are likely to influence behavior.
Cohen, J. (2010). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Academic Press.
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Epstein, M. (2008). The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale. Behavioral Disorders , 1178 (65), 314-321.
Gresham, F. (2010). Behavioral and Functional Assessment. Handbook of Child Behaviortherapy , 217 (9), 13-22.
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Reamer, F. (2009). Social Work Research and Evaluation Skills. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rosenthal, R. (2008). Contrasts and Effect Sizes in Behavioral Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.