Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection is the process of acquiring a proper human resource for a company.
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Every organization wishes to recruit and select the best candidate for each vacancy. The process of recruitment must be fair, reasonable and consistent. Effective recruitment must follow effective and efficient human resource planning. Recruitment and selection of employees should therefore give equal opportunities to potential and actual applicants, regardless of sex and race, disability or country of origin so long as one has working permit.
The process of recruitment selection entails:
- Job description and specification. Job description is the process of identifying the job title, the job summary, job duties and responsibilities, the relationship with other jobs, the supervision required, the tools and equipments to be used and working conditions of the jobholder. Job specification entails the characteristics of a jobholder like health, strength, body size, attitude, judgment, analytical skills, appearance and emotions, confidence and trust, sex and age. Corporate in the west today are faced with problems of aging workforce and racial discrimination. In order to do away with these problems, proper job description and specification policy should be put in place to attract huge and human resources from Asia and Africa.
- Advertisement: After job descriptions an organization will be having accrue as per the type of person, they want thus requiring advertisement. Advertisement can be in the business journals, circulating new papers, in the internet and through out sourcing. In the advert the following will detailed clearly job title, duration and the end of the contract, the advertising organization, the department requiring the person, description of the main duties, qualification, skills and experience required, salary to paid and closing date of the advert. It may also contain the country where the job will be.
- Short listing: – after advertising, the corporate will have start the initial stage of sorting and sifting. In sorting and sifting care should be taken to ensure no discriminatory practices. When in short listing consistence and fairness should be taken into account and no discriminatory practices. It should be carried out by more than one person and the selectors should not have relatives who had applied, it should follow the company’s policy. The selectors should be people who have full knowledge of the company’s job description and specification. This normally done by departmental heads and personnel with knowledge of the requirements of the job.
- Interview: – An interview is the process of selecting. The interview is used to access the candidate’s suitability, the accurate picture of the job and have a fair hearing from each candidate. More than one person should conduct the interview. The interviewed and interviewer should be prepared. The interview should be structured and have a two way process. It should be carried out in good environment without interruptions and give the candidate’s equal opportunities regardless religion, political views, marital status, family affairs cultural practices, ethnic origins.
- References: The last stage of selection is referencing from the people who know the candidates. Referencing should not breach confidentiality of some information. It should be used to get some information such as employment history, medical history, and absenteeism from work, reason for leaving, opinions about character and suitability and probably the opinion of the reference about his appointments.
After recruitment and selection of employees, the task ahead is retaining the employee selected. Retention begins the first day the new employee reports. This because the impression one gets at first time will show him the culture of the organization. For effective retention the policies must be in place
- Job training and development: After selection job training and development is carried out. Job training is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes for performance of a particular job or task while job development is the process of improvement and growth of individual’s faculties, attitudes, insights and traits. (i) Job training: It involves induction and other trainings. Induction is the process of introducing and welcoming a new employee to the company staff, the company policies and procedures, providing with information about working arrangement and telling about his employment contract and pay roll issues. (ii) Job training imparts new knowledge and skills that assist employees to work effectively in their current positions through getting latest concepts, information and techniques. It also prepares employees for career progression and have interchange of experience. In order to carry out job evaluation is required. Job evaluation is the process of analyzing the output of the jobholder and his job specification. Job evaluation measures productivity of the person. (iii) Development: Development is process of determining the present and the future needs of an employee. It entails organizational planning, program targeting, managerial appraisal performance. This may be true job rotation, acting in senior positions and even inter-company exchanges.
- Performance Appraisal i: Performance appraisal is the process of determining or accessing an individual’s performance with the aim of identifying potential and weaknesses. Performance appraisal is important because of the following reasons (i) to uncover special abilities and potentials of the employees. (ii) To determine training needs and evaluate training effectiveness for staff development purposes. (iii)It serves as a means to measure improvements in performance of the individual employees. (iv)It helps the management to determine remuneration and promotion awards to employees based on merit. (v) The exercise enables the management to provide feedback to employees on their performance. Employees should be informed of their performance ratings to be aware of their weakness and potentials. In appraising a person or an employee, corporate should look for the following:- Knowledge of work, Quantity of work, responsibility and dependence, accomplishment, initiative and creativity, interpersonal relationship, punctuality, supervisory abilities and professional contributions.
- Wage and Salary Administration: after appraisal and recruitment, the staff needs to be compensated for their efforts. Salary and Wage administration refers to remuneration of any kind to staff members in the corporate. Salary refers to the remuneration paid at monthly intervals to white-collar workers who are under annual contracts or permanent and pensionable, while wage refers to remuneration paid to blue-collar workers. Wages and salary policy of a company may attract, retain and motivate sufficient numbers of suitable employees. It can also encourage employees to use their talents fully, and increasing productivity. It also recognizes the value of a job contribution to profitability of a company. It assists the employees to share growth and prosperity of an organization. There are a number of wages and salaries structures adopted by a number of organization, pay by time, pay by results, company wide incentive skims
- Motivation in corporate: Motivation means the process of energizing directing and sustaining employee’s efforts. It involves the process of leading people in behaving in a specific way. It varies in nature intensity from individual to individual depending on a particular mixture of influences. Effective managers motivate people to join the organization, remain in the organization, come to work regularly, perform at high levels while at work and be good corporate citizens.
- Employee empowerment: Employee empowerment is the process of giving employees authorities and responsibilities regarding decision making in their departments for customer satisfaction and product improvement. Recruiting and selection is an important activity of an organization. It is during recruitment and selection where a company selects an employee who will work and remain in the company for a long period. A good recruitment and selection process aims at acquiring and retaining the best employee for the organization. Selection gives potential employees an impression about the company and the reward offered when joining the company will attract and keep the employee with the organization. Therefore, recruitment and selection are important in retention of employees in an organization.
- Jay Jamrog, recruitment practices, Human Resources management guide Human Resource Department, recruitment and selection, Leeds University website.
- Gochman, Hiring and orientation programs. Web.