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PICO question: For developing countries experiencing high rates of hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections), will the use of preventive measures as compared to many antiseptic scrubbing solutions decrease the rates of infections among patients.
Population (P) – Hospitals in the developing countries
The target population in this project is based on the fact that it is well documented that nosocomial infections, which contribute to high rates of morbidity and mortality, are a major problem in hospitals around the world, particularly in the developing countries (Hugh, 2007).
According to the World Health Organization (2012), hospital-acquired infections cause preventable diseases such as urinary tract infections, diarrhea, maternal and newborn infections, pneumonia, post-operative infections, and even death in developing countries.
Accordingly, the World Health Organization (2012) notes that the rates of nosocomial infections are high in developing countries due to poor infection prevention strategies and lack of supervision, among other factors. Therefore, nosocomial infections still remain to be a major problem in developing countries, which should be addressed accordingly.
Intervention (I) – The use of infection prevention measures
Following the foregoing discussions, it is notable that one of the major factors contributing to the prevalence of high rates of nosocomial infections in developing countries is poor infection prevention practices. As a result, to address the problem of nosocomial infections in most hospitals across the developing world, there is the need to encourage the use of infection prevention practices.
Some of the widely used practices include risk stratification, hand decontamination, sterilization, safe injection practices, use of protective clothing, and cleaning hospital environment, among others (World Health Organization, 2012).
For the ICU where the rate of CR-BSIs is relatively higher, it is recommended that the use of antibiotic lock therapy, quinolone prophylaxis, and/or the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters could influence susceptibility to CR-BSIs, which have been shown to affect the use of antimicrobial therapy.
In fact, it is recommended that adherence to preventive practices that have been shown to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections should be encouraged in all ICUs (Vajpayee, 2010).
Control (C) – Many antiseptic scrubbing solutions
Most of the antiseptic scrubbing solutions, which are in use currently including isopropyl alcohol, chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophors, and chlorhexidine, have certain disadvantages despite their efficacy in either killing or removing bacteria from various surfaces.
As a result, to find out how infection prevention practices will fair against these scrubbing solutions, it is important to have them as controls in this project. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the best method for controlling and/or eliminating nosocomial infections in developing countries will be the use of infection prevention practices as outlined in the foregoing discussions.
Outcome (O) – Decreasing the rate of nosocomial infections
The ultimate goal for this project entails addressing the issue of high rates of nosocomial infections in developing countries, which will culminate into the decrease of the said rates of hospital-acquired infections.
However, to achieve this goal and outcome, it is imperative to note that the World Health Organization (2012) has identified certain practical guidelines that should be followed in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections.
For instance, before implementing any infection prevention measure, it is recommended that one should start by defining the epidemiology of nosocomial infections within a given area followed by the development of the infection control programs and infection surveillance, which will then give way to dealing with outbreaks and finally, the implementation of infection prevention practices as outlined in the foregoing discussions.
Hugh, M. G. (2007). Complications in Cutaneous Surgery. New York: Springer.
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Vajpayee, D. (2010). Phacoemulsification Surgery. New Delhi: Jaypee Publishers.
World Health Organization. (2012). Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: A practical guide (2nd ed.). The World Health Organization. Web.