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How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres Essay (Book Review)

Executive Summary

When exploring a specific problem and finding solutions for it, a researcher has to present recommendations to key stakeholders who will implement them further. In such cases, recommendation reports are very useful for presenting key information on a specific topic and developing possible solutions to an issue. This report aimed to examine the key characteristics of recommendation reports, outlining the main similarities between different examples of such reports. After analyzing the examples from How Writing Works, it was found that recommendation reports:

  • Provide scientific data to support the need to improve specific issues;
  • Follow a standard and logical writing structure;
  • Have a clear purpose of examining the problem and offering solutions for it.

Based on the findings listed above, this report also made some recommendations as to how to write a comprehensive recommendation report.


A recommendation report is a widely used genre of writing that focuses on offering a solution to a specific issue. It is worth mentioning that recommendation reports differ from proposals or simple reports because they explore various solutions to a problem and do not narrow their scope to only one recommendation. Thus, there are some specific guidelines according to which recommendation reports are usually written.

This paper will examine the characteristics of recommendation reports based on examples provided in How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres by Jack and Guest Pryal. To identify the key components of an effective recommendation report, this paper will analyze similarities between different examples of recommendation report writing and differentiate them into categories.

Key Similarities Between Recommendation Reports

Evaluation of examples from How Writing Works facilitates an in-depth examination of the key components of recommendation reports present in all three examples: Health Sciences Recommendation Report, Recommendation Report for a Chemistry Course, and Medical Recommendation Report. Even though not all of the mentioned reports are structured in the completely same manner, some important similarities will be discussed in each of the following sections.

Use of statistical/scientific data

Since the purpose of the recommendation report implies some analysis of the issue at hand, all three examples include scientific data that support the need to find a solution. Such a similarity between all examples of recommendation reports ties in with one of the three modes of persuasion, ethos, which calls for an appeal to the authority or the credibility of the presented information.

The use of statistical data in recommendation report writing is essential for explaining to readers why the issue needs to be resolved, as well as for providing the factual framework that serves as a basis for developing the most appropriate solution. Without the analysis of the scientific data on the problem at hand, a researcher will be unable to develop recommendations that will be effective at the stage of implementation.

For example, in the Safety Report that focuses on eliminating alcohol-impaired driving, the authors present statistical data on alcohol-impaired driving fatalities: “According to FARS estimates, in 2011, there were 9,878 alcohol-impaired driving fatalities, which represented 31 percent of all highway fatalities.” In the same way, in the report on chlorine as a pool water sanitizer, the author presents a cost evaluation of sanitation methods, while the author of the report on the control of meningococcal disease includes statistics on the number of college students at risk of contracting the disease. The scientific data offered in each recommendation report increases the author’s credibility and explains to the readers why it is important to resolve the problem.

Identical report structure

A review of the examples of recommendation reports shows that all of them bear a similar structure, which is comprised of the following sections: summary, introduction, description of methods, list of results, conclusions, recommendations, and references. With some minor discrepancies, all examples of recommendation reports follow a set structure, which makes it very easy for readers to navigate and find the necessary information quickly. Such a report structure is logical and allows authors to ground their recommendations on the conducted research, as outlined in the methods and results sections.

For example, the third recommendation report conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention includes all of the above-mentioned sections to conclude the report with recommendations for the use of meningococcal vaccines, recommendations that are based on the research methods, the background of the problem, and the cost-benefit analysis. These sections of the report offer in-depth information about how to manage the use of meningococcal vaccines and improve the overall health outcomes for first-year college students living in residence halls, who are much more likely to be exposed to the disease.

The recommendations in the report on chlorine as a pool water sanitizer are also based on a cost evaluation and an overview of alternative water sanitation methods. By grounding the recommendations on reliable data that has been acquired through thorough research, the key stakeholders who have decided to implement the presented recommendations are much more likely to achieve success in resolving the problem.

Common purpose

The last element that unites all of the analyzed recommendation report examples is the common purpose of such reports. The structure and the information provided in such reports serve the same purpose: to outline the most suitable recommendations that will add value and encourage key stakeholders to act upon a problem without making excuses. All recommendations outlined in the analyzed examples are specific, measurable, and reachable, which means that their authors have a clear objective of helping readers begin implementing change for improving outcomes.

For example, the report on the topic of alcohol-impaired driving mentions the purpose of the investigation as well as the given recommendations: “The goal of reaching zero deaths from alcohol-impaired driving in the United States is achievable. This report is intended to identify which efforts should be elements of such programs.” This shows that all recommendation reports share a common purpose: to solve a specific issue by looking for possible solutions and recommending them to key stakeholders who can make a change for the better.


Based on the analysis of these three recommendation report samples, a conclusion can be made that they all serve a similar purpose, follow a specific and logical writing structure that is very easy to navigate, and ground findings on factual and scientific data acquired throughout the research. Therefore, some recommendations as to how others can succeed in writing a comprehensive recommendation report may include the following:

  • Begin the report with an identification of the problem and its background.
  • Include scientific data that supports the need to resolve the identified problem.
  • Follow a set structure that maintains a logical flow of information.
  • State the purpose of the report and outline the recommendations based on this purpose.

The Impact of Globalization on Unemployment

The modern environment of globalization puts the worldwide community into a perspective of increased representation and diversity. With increasing capital flow and a greater ability to provide more high-quality products and services, as well as to create multinational corporations, people around the world currently have more benefits than ever before. Because people have access to resources and services almost anywhere in the world, regardless of their location, and because new companies can create more workplaces and provide a more stable income, the issue of unemployment can be taken under control.

Until ten years ago, the influence of globalization on the distribution of jobs had been predominantly beneficial. Advanced economies had been growing at an approximate rate of two and a half percent. In the majority of these economies, the variety and spread of work opportunities had also been increasing through different levels of education or expertise. As developing markets began to engage with the global economic environment, the prices on imported products decreased, which in turn benefited all customers.

With the growth of the developing economies came a dramatic change in their structure, which meant that they were able to make a step up on the value-added chain. The production of high-value services and export goods also called for an increase in the number of workplaces, as well as a change in the demand for more skilled and experienced workers.

In these ways, globalization has been shown to positively impact unemployment rates by creating more jobs due to the emergence of new companies. It also has an impact on the availability of employment opportunities in other countries through direct investment. Depending on the size of the investment, the adopted technology, and the capability of workers to master the technology, recipient countries can highly benefit from foreign investment. Furthermore, there may be some spillover effects from foreign countries that will facilitate the development of science, education, and technology, subsequently creating even more job opportunities.

While globalization can play a role in improving the situation on the labor market, there has been some controversy as to its negative impact, namely the so-called unemployment effect. Although the growth in trade has created many jobs, the increased competition between companies has also forced some companies to fire their employees to cut costs and increase profits. The unemployment effect is much more visible in the lesser developed countries that are not prepared for economic fluctuations.

For example, when China was faced with strong economic growth, many companies, especially in rural areas, began laying off employees to cut costs. Therefore, it seems clear that there is also a negative impact of globalization on the labor market.

It is important to examine the effects of globalization on the labor market since the issue of job security is critical for most people across the globe. With the opening of new opportunities, increased mobility, and the elimination of many barriers, people are currently able to work whenever and however they desire, especially given the demand for information technology professionals who can work from any location on the planet.

By outlining the positive effects that globalization has on employment, it will be possible to continue working in their direction. On the other hand, it is also important to be aware of the existing and potential negative impacts to eliminate them in the future.

Gozgor, Giray. “The Impact of Trade Openness on the Unemployment Rate in G7 Countries.” The Journal of International Trade and Economic Development 23.7 (2014): 1018-1037. Print.

This article written by Giray Gozgor aims to explore how trade openness (liberalization) and globalization affect the unemployment rate, especially in developed countries that are members of the Group of Seven. By empirically investigating the impact of four various liberalization and globalization measures on the unemployment rate, Gozhor demonstrates that all of the examined measures (i.e. nominal openness, KOF globalization index, real openness, and economic globalization index) are negatively associated with unemployment.

Such a conclusion means that there is a need to continue the spread of globalization to reduce the unemployment rates. The findings of this research study correlate with some previously conducted empirical studies, which conclude that globalization and trade openness significantly decrease unemployment. Moreover, the final findings also correlate with the predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin model, which the researcher uses in his study.

As to the credibility of the source and the author, the article was peer-reviewed before publication in the Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, which is a reliable source that focuses on the relationship between international trade and development. Giray Gozgor is an Associate Professor of International Relations and Economics at Istanbul Medeniyet University; therefore, he is experienced in the field of international economics and has all the required credentials to conduct such a study. Moreover, the author uses more than forty references in the research, the majority of which are peer-reviewed articles and printed books that relate to the topic at hand.

The article “The Impact of Trade Openness on the Unemployment Rate in G7 Countries” helps frame a clearer idea about how globalization and trade openness influence rates of unemployment, especially in the developed countries such as Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The author mentions the severe impact of the global recession of 2008-2009 on trade openness as well as the condition of labor markets.

However, it was not only the labor market that felt a dramatic decrease in its capabilities but also the international market, which struggled a lot to get back on its feet. The wide availability of open job positions directly correlates with the prosperity of global trade and the reach of globalization.

By incorporating specific measures into the empirical research, the author manages to illustrate that a significant decrease in the unemployment rate correlates with the increased economic growth of G7 countries, as well as the growth of the population. It has also been found that the unemployment rate is negatively related to product changes and inflation, which suggests that in the majority of cases, inflation or changes in productivity do not contribute to a decrease in employment rates.

Therefore, a conclusion can be made that globalization has the full potential to improve the labor market situation and decrease unemployment rates in developed countries. It is recommended to continue spreading the reach of globalization and trade openness to create more opportunities for both employers and employees. Indeed, developed countries should abandon protectionist ideas and open their borders to innovation and the inflow of new talent to increase their economic capabilities and strengthen their positions on the global market. Overall, the article is useful for shedding light on some misconceptions about the impact of globalization on the labor market and suggesting some strategies that may be useful for developed economies to grow stronger.

This book review on How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

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IvyPanda. (2020, October 9). How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-writing-works-a-guide-to-composing-genres/

Work Cited

"How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres." IvyPanda, 9 Oct. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/how-writing-works-a-guide-to-composing-genres/.

1. IvyPanda. "How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres." October 9, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-writing-works-a-guide-to-composing-genres/.


IvyPanda. "How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres." October 9, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-writing-works-a-guide-to-composing-genres/.


IvyPanda. 2020. "How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres." October 9, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-writing-works-a-guide-to-composing-genres/.


IvyPanda. (2020) 'How Writing Works: A Guide to Composing Genres'. 9 October.

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