On pp. 176-177, Pill talks about the OET. What is the Universe of Generalization for the OET speaking sub-test?
In the context of the article, the universe generalization for the OET Speaking sub-test measures is the overall effectiveness of communication and expressing thoughts clearly in professional settings. Simultaneously, it emphases matters such as intellectuality, appropriateness of vocabulary and grammar, and the ability to use phrases in a particular context (Pill 176).
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In your own words (don’t quote!), what is meant by “indigenous criteria”?
Indigenous criteria are the principles and concepts, which are used to measure language proficiency and their applicability in different situations such as business, medicine, and social studies. In this case, focusing on a particular sphere helps evaluate whether the participant of the test has the required skills to pursue a career in the specific field.
What inference in the validity argument does Pill’s study address? Briefly explain your answer
Overall, Pill’s study addressed the fact that establishing general criteria for the language proficiency testing might not be considered as relevant for the representatives of different professions. In this case, the study vehemently referred to the matter that the communicative skills and understanding of the vocabulary usage have to be studied separately to propose relevant indigenous criteria and enhance the level of validity of the research.
What was the purpose of the workshops with health professionals?
The initial goal of the study was to determine the criteria, which were highly important during the medical consultation, and, in this case, the information was gathered from the health professionals with the help of the workshops. Consequently, the primary reason for using this method was the ability of the participants to identify the key components with the assistance of real-life examples and highlight the required skills.
Why did Pill conduct separate workshops for doctors and nurses?
Despite the similarities between nurses’ and doctor’s functions and duties, these professionals might have different expectations about the process and dissimilar skills for conducting a consultation. Furthermore, having these groups in one workshop might bias the findings of the research due to the clash of interests and different educational backgrounds.
On p. 184 in Figure 1, Pill shows the relationship between the various themes. What is the relationship between Interactional tools and Clinical skills / Communication skills / Practitioner skills?
The interactional tools such as clear expression and paraphrasing highly referred to the non-verbal communication (communicational skills) and the ability to ask a right question from the patient to define the content of the consultation (clinical skills) (Pill 184). Simultaneously, using the interactive instruments effectively had a positive impact on the clarity of the expression and assisted in documenting the results and managing time (practitioner skills).
On p. 190, Pill briefly defines the two new assessment criteria: Clinician Engagement and Management of Interaction. He provides a more extensive definition for raters in an earlier paper (Pill, 2013, 213-214)
Clinician Engagement: “You negotiated with the patients in a way that empowered them, e.g., when you were talking about what to do about the first woman’s tummy pain, you said ‘we can decide together’” (Pill 186).
Management of Interaction: “You know like it was quite an effective communication in that [the nurse] got what she wanted out of it which was the- finding out basically her assessment of her [the patient’s] obs[ervations] and things like that and where her coughing was so I guess um yeah it was effective” (Pill 184).
How are Clinical Skills assessed in the new criteria? Why?
In this case, the clinical skills are accessed differently, as, now, attention is paid not only to the ability to apply the theoretical concepts into practice but also to the competences of the nurse to organize the structure of the consultation and engage a patient into the interaction effects. The primary reason for this change is the paramount importance of patient-centeredness and efficiency to ensure the high quality of healthcare (Pill 186).
Once the new criteria are introduced, what needs to be done to strengthen the Utilization inference?
To encourage the utilization of these criteria in practice, improving the validity of the results is necessary. In this case, conducting additional researches, consulting the professionals from the industry, and creating trial tests will have a positive impact on the application of these criteria.
Pill, John. “Drawing on indigenous criteria for more authentic assessment in a specific-purpose language test: Health professionals interacting with patients.” Language Testing 33.2 (2016):175-193. Print.