The International Classification of Diseases-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) refers to different codes used to classify a wide range of injuries and diseases. The codes are also used to conduct the required surveillance for different diseases and health issues (Bowie 21). The ICD-9-CM codes were implemented in 1979 (Bowman 13). Due to the ineffectiveness of the ICD-9-CM codes, many nations have adopted the use of ICD-10-CM.
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Differences Between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM
There are some striking differences between these two codes. To begin with, ICD-10-CM code sets should be treated as an upgrade for the ICD-9-CM. It should be noted that ICM-10-CM “has 19 times as many procedure codes as those outlined in ICM-9-CM” (“International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10-CM/PCS) Transition” par. 4). ICM-9-CM has 3,824 codes while ICM-10-CM has 71,924. The new ICM-10-CM has more diagnostic codes. For instance, ICD-10-CM has 69,823 diagnostic codes while ICD-9-CM has 14,025. This fact explains why the model is more effective for diagnosing various diseases.
The other critical difference is that “the improved version embraces the use of alphanumerical categories while ICD-9-CM uses numerical ones” (Bowman 8). The new set of codes is also characterized by a different order for every chapter. As well, ICD-10-CM has new titles and subtitles. The developers of the ICM-10-CM also presented new groupings for different conditions. The procedure structure defined by ICD-9-CM is characterized by 3-4 characters while ICD-10-CM has 7. Each of these 7 characters is either numeric or alphanumeric. All the characters outlined in the ICD-9-CM code sets are numeric. ICM-9-CM code sets “have at least 3 characters” (Bowie 31). ICD-10-CM codes “are grouped using numbers 0-9 and letter A-H, J-N, and P-Z” (“International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10-CM/PCS) Transition” par. 7). These differences, therefore, explain why healthcare facilities should embrace the use of the ICD-10-CM code sets.
Why They Chose to Upgrade ICD-9-CM
Several reasons can be used to explain why many nations and professionals decided to upgrade the ICM-9-CM. these original code sets lack appropriate details thus creating the need for extra documentation (Olsen 37). The new set of codes was therefore aimed at addressing this need. The pioneers also wanted to “have specific code descriptions in an attempt to reduce errors” (Dalgleish 19). Such an upgrade was also essential towards achieving the required IT potential in healthcare. ICD-10-CM data is easy to retrieve, share, and analyze. ICM-10-CM was also implemented to improve coding accuracy, efficiency, and consistency (Boyle and Kostick 3).
Dalgleish observes that ICM-9-CM codes were unable to offer various reimbursement services (42). Reimbursement purposes emerged after the codes had already been implemented. The introduction of ICD-10-CM was therefore critical towards establishing the best payment systems. The new codes are currently making it easier for organizations, policymakers, and professionals to compare various documentations (Olsen 59). As well, experts believe strongly that ICD-10-CM will promote the development of new tools that can detect fraud and malpractices in healthcare. The ultimate goal is to “achieve the targeted healthcare goals and keep up with medicine” (Bowman 102).
Bowie, Mary. Understanding ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS: A Worktext. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2015. Print.
Bowman, Sue. “Why ICD-10 Is Worth the Trouble.” AHIMA 1.1 (2004): 1-13. Print.
Boyle, Ginger, and Karen Kostick 2016, Coding UTI to Sepsis in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM. PDF file. Web.
Dalgleish, Carline. ICD-10-CM Diagnostic Coding System: Education, Planning and Implementation. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Olsen, Lynnette. Medical Coding Specialists’ Exam Review-Physician. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.