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One of the most common forms of pathology of the nervous system is neuroses. The term neurosis is used to refer to functional disorders of the nervous system. Neuroses are associated with “diseases of civilization” and associate their widespread prevalence with the growing urbanization of the population, information overloads, reducing the impact on human life, affecting both social factors and psycho-traumatic factors. It must be emphasized that the experiments cannot be carried out with the use of mice if there are other replacement methods for obtaining relevant results. It is ethically correct to strive to improve the conditions of experimental animals in a vivarium.
The neurosis studies were chosen due to the fact that they mainly use rodent model organisms, such as mice due to their mammalian feature. In addition, the symptoms of neurosis are highly similar to human ones, thus, laboratory rodents serve as an outstanding template for laboratory studies (Varela et al. 17). Neurosis is among the most prevalent diseases of the nervous systems, where pathological features are present across all mammals (Castellano et al. 491).
In addition, the mice and rats possess short life spans and gestational periods compared to other mammalians. Their larger litter size is another key advantage of conducting experiments in the mice (Castellano et al. 490). Thus, rodents serve as a highly useful model organism due to their genealogical closeness to humans and shorter life spans.
The concept of 3R’s is an essential idea, which helps to significantly increase the productivity of the experimental procedures. The principle of reduction is aimed at reducing the number of animals involved in the experiment. It is possible with a careful preliminary study of the “design” of the research, including taking into account the preliminary results of in vitro experiments and computer modeling. The refinement principle possesses an optimal minimum required for a specific study of animals is established by statistical analysis (Konger et al. 687). Thus, the variability of individuals within a species as a basic problem of a biological experiment can be solved by using genetically identical animals.
The principle of replacement involves conducting an experiment using scientific technology without using animals in all possible cases. For example, insulin testing can be carried out not by a biological method on animals, but by laboratory chromatographic analysis. Complete replacement of animals in the experiment is unlikely, so the idea of developing alternative models is bioethically attractive. Therefore, reduction, refinement, and replacement allow to easily navigate and structure the research data and its variables, which make a significant impact on the accuracy and precision of the experimental studies in neurosis (Konger et al. 690). In addition, the study flow becomes more fast-paced due to the orderliness of the research tasks.
Neurosis studies in mice determine the key underlying changes occurring in the body. Epidemiological studies of neurosis are due not only to the great medical but also to the socio-economic significance of this problem: the incidence of the symptom is the central part. Therefore, the development and preclinical evaluation of the effectiveness of new anti-neurotic agents (Leung et al. 2). Pathogenetic aspects of the formation of experimental neuroses.
The clinical picture of almost all forms of neuronal sepsis includes sleep disorders, emotional state, and autonomic-visceral, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, indications of an essential role in the pathogenesis of neuroses in the structural limbic-reticular complex, with which the main symptoms of the disease are associated, are becoming increasingly common. These changes resemble human neurosis symptoms due to the mammalian resemblance.
In addition, the study should follow the rules in order to avoid violations of conditioned-reflex activity after neurotic effects observed in all laboratory mice. The given model organism was used as a template for neurosis studies because both humans and rodents are mammals. They are expressed in different ways: in the form of an increase in the number of latent periods and disturbances of power relations, and decreases or loss of conditioned reflexes. These changes in the state of the autonomic and reflex nervous activity are not only a manifestation of the incipient disease but the most likely mobilization of the body’s defenses (Kim et al. 4).
When neurotic disorders are caused by prolonged stress, depletion of catecholamine systems occurs, which can lead to a decrease in the rate of metabolic processes. The deep phases of sleep are an increase in the number of awakenings, defectiveness, and functional inferiority. Neurotransmitter, vascular, and glioneuronal disorders were identified, indicating the development of hypoxia and a decrease in the rate of local cerebral blood flow. The given symptoms can indicate the opportunities for targeted medical aid among humans.
At present, the following methodological approaches to the modeling of neurosis-like states in laboratory mice are encountered in research practice: limiting the reflex, changing the daily light rhythm and sleep rhythms, and asthenia of the nervous system. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various methodological approaches to experimental neuroticization of laboratory animals showed intricate results (Varela et al. 19).
In the absence of additional special requirements, a path to the conflict of afferent excitations and the formation of desynchronizes in laboratory mice can be considered adequate to the tasks of psychopharmacological studies. Thus, it is important to determine the methodological approaches in mice-based experiments.
It should also be noted that in the literature there is no single view on the information content of various methods for assessing the state of mice in the process of neuroticism, as well as the criteria for the formation of neurosis. The state of neuronal sepsis is usually judged on the basis of qualitative signs, while quantitative assessments of its severity are either absent altogether, or affect only individual symptoms, but not their totality. Nor are quantitative data on the effect of such factors as seasonality, sex, and age of laboratory mice that are significant for the state of rodents on the efficiency of neurosis formation (Kim et al. 3).
The study showed that experimental neurosis in laboratory animals (white mice) could be obtained with chronic stress effects, forming a conflict of afferent excitations. An effective model of neurotic states in animals can be considered a model in which, for at least four weeks, animals are exposed to complex stress effects, combining alternating light, sound, and electrodermal afferent irritations. The functional state of the animals that are formed reflects both the stress response and the adaptation to chronic stress.
In conclusion, it was demonstrated that for the formation of experimental neurosis in rats, the spring-summer period is more optimal. The concept 3R’s is also relevant for the conductance of the research. In the autumn-winter period, animals experience differences in the phase of the neurotic process and its severity, which complicates the process of biomodelling. The shown biomedical model of experimental neurosis can be used in the development and preclinical studies of the effectiveness of new anti-neurotic drugs. Various methodological approaches identify the key symptomatic features of human neurosis.
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Castellano, Joseph M., et al. “Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice”. Nature, vol. 544, no. 7651, 2017, pp. 488-492.
Kim, Won H., et al. “BACE1 elevation engendered by GGA3 deletion increases β amyloid pathology in association with APP elevation and decreased CHL1 processing in 5XFAD mice”. Molecular neurodegeneration, vol. 13, no. 1, 2018, pp. 1-5.
Konger, Raymond L., et al. “Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice”. Experimental dermatology, vol. 25, no. 9, 2016, pp. 688-693.
Leung, Jacqueline M., et al. “Rapid environmental effects on gut nematode susceptibility in rewilded mice”. PLoS biology, vol. 16, no. 3, 2018, pp. 1-3.
Varela, Elisa et al. “Generation of mice with longer and better preserved telomeres in the absence of genetic manipulations”. Nature communications, vol. 7, no. 11739, 2016, pp. 3-21.