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These are technologies or disciplines of asceticism and meditation which are thought to lead to spiritual experience and profound understanding or the insight into the nature of existence and it is connected to religious beliefs and practices of Indian religions.
It is one of the most ancient spiritual concepts of east, and despite a philosophical look it has an equally significant physical basis and it is a collection of simple practices, a kind of body rituals, consisting of action, method and the technique. It is a science that yokes the finite with the infinite, or the finite spirit with the supreme spirit. Most of the animals have been mistreated in all places and their cry is secret as there is no communication a human being can here as we mistreat them.
The cats and dogs in were killed for fur something that is seen as a mistreat to them because people do not think and they seem to enjoy being in denial and adopt a non- questioning attitudes where animals are concerned and it makes them feel better about themselves to call animal activists irrational than to see themselves as a supporter of a painful and cruel trade as a meat- eater. The sutra form is a distinct type of literary composition, based on the short statements, generally using various technical terms and it is designed for concision, as the texts are intended to be memorized in some of the formal methods of scriptural study.
The violence can be of three types: done by oneself; got done by another; and approved when done by other and can be violence because of greed for example killing of an animal for its meat and skin, also through anger, if one feels the other has wronged them in some manner and also through delusion, thinking for example that by sacrificing animals in rituals one can acquire merit. The ahimsa is one of the five basic ethical precepts, which must be first cultivated for purifying and calming the mind, as a stepping- stone towards the ultimate enlightenment.
Some people may have many resources when others are lacking and it is some sorts of violence people have over others the ahimsa is the highest self- restraint, the greatest charity, the highest penance, highest sacrifice, greatest fruit, greatest friend and highest happiness. The moral attitudes are meant to bring our impulsive life under control and the desire not to harm others is an essential ingredient in cultivating a mental state and recognizing the essential unity underlying all the living beings, leading towards the ultimate mystical union.
The ethical precepts have a social implication that is it involves a violence perpetrated by one another for the selfish gains by helping one to rechannel the powerful survival instincts. These social interactions through moral discipline help us to suggest the ways in which the psychophysical energy can be freed and be further harnessed to take the yogi to the next level and if they give a positive restraint to our relations and others then our individuality can be addressed through: purification, contentment, penance, self- study of sacred texts, and the surrender to God.
The physical purification leads to disenchantment with one’s body and this is because it is hard to try to cleanse, bodily functions are bound to generate impurity. The contentment leads to unsurpassed happiness as it destroys impurity and leads to fulfillment of the body and the sense- organs and the sense organs and the body both depend on the external world for their gratification. When they are thus fulfilled, and have served their purpose, the yogi has no attachment left to the world.
The self- study leads to union with the desired deity and such an individual has no need for external aids to achieve his spiritual purpose. In surrendering oneself wholly to god it leads to perfection and the yogi remains super consciously absorbed to the outside world.
The softening of boundaries of the self is of paramount importance for they are too tight as one sees the other as separate, different, and apart from oneself which can lead to conflict and violence. But if the boundaries are softened then one sees oneself and the others as united in some way.
There are four factors in understanding the meaning of ahimsa in the yoga sutra and include: the general Hindu belief that according to karmic law, the process of karmic development, which can lead to self- realization and thereby moksa that is rebirth requires overcoming ego; the fact that the yoga school was focused on and engaged in the angas or the disciplinary practices necessary for the yogins who were at a very advanced state of spiritual development to achieve self- realization; the underlying metaphysics of the yogi school that differs in a significant way from the samkhya metaphysics.
According to that metaphysics, there are two ultimate aspects of reality which are distinct; one is the purusa, which is the pure consciousness, that is described as unbound and inactive and the other aspect of reality is the physical or the material world which is described as unconscious, and the things and the beings in it are said to be bound. The world is made of constituents; that which is light or illumines and also that which is light or buoyant and that which is dark, and heavy and resists energy.
In the yoga school there was a shift away from dualism to the idea that the purusa is to be found within oneself and the shift is important for the understanding of the significance of the ahimsa because the material, sensual self is identified as the true- self which is to be unveiled; and lastly the patantjali’s great insight concerning the forces of bondage, especially raga and the dvesa and their interactions. The raga can be described as an attraction to things and the persons that feed the ego which expresses itself in grasping and attachment and the dvesais the aversion to and the dislike of those things and the person which are perceived to be threatening to the ego.
The meditative practices start with the moral abstentions which begin with and are based on the ahimsa, the spiritual observances, the physical practices, breath control and the effort to shut off sensory input from the gunas. The yoga proper includes: the concentration which involves the binding of the mind stuff on a place of fixed attention; meditation which is the state of fixed attention wherein there is a flow of unbroken current toward a particular object ;and the contemplation wherein only the object of meditation shines forth in the mind.
The importance of the ahimsa is that, as part of the moral abstentions, it is considered before the spiritual, physical, or the mental angas. It also underlies the other moral abstentions that is the truth, not stealing, non- grasping or non- possesion, and the celibacy. If the ahimsa is adopted by a large number of people in the world then conflict and violence can end for it is attitude that is the one’s state of mind, disposition, or habitual mode of regarding life, that can either give rise to conflict and violence or not.
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The animals should be given the legal rights to demonstrate their natural behavior even if they are found to be harmful and their movements have to be restricted and all measures, such as shooting predators or introducing diseases, taken to counteract ecological pollution and degeneration or the substitute habitats or protection should be rendered unnecessary. Maltreatment of animals is punishable by law laid down but does not include penalizing passive maltreatment of animals by for example the extreme curtailment of an animal’s freedom of movement.
Disregarding an animal’s well being is related to animal rights but animals also have fundamental rights in case of the obscure relation between human behavior and the animal’s well being. The freedom is a paradoxical concept and clear boundaries are to be created as to its beginning and its end and an advantage of freedom is that it entails a limit to the obligation to be concerned with animal rights. By safeguarding these rights, the animal can be left to interpret freedom in its own way and be free to exercise behavior that is in accordance with its innate nature.
For animals in the wild it is sufficient to be able to maintain a natural balance without disturbance by human beings and for the domestic or the agricultural animals the important thing is to ensure that they are able to exercise their behavior to a certain extent The freedom also entails the right of physical integrity in that no bodily harm by interventions including cutting beak, castration of piglets, genetic engineering or the extreme unhealthy forms of breeding.
The boundaries that can be set with respect to animals without infringing their fundamental right of freedom are: sterilization and the castration of pet animals, separate housing of the male and female domestic animals for the purpose of birth control; fencing off meadows and the demarcation of motorways; and lastly euthanasia and the abortion in cases of great suffering, similar to cases of human suffering when patients are not capable of expressing themselves.
A significant asset of the concept of freedom is that it can also be utilized by people who in principle disagree with the ultimate consequences like keeping pet animals can be seen as a way of depriving the animals freedom but with a pet lover in order to define the right circumstances for keeping pets and reaching a compromise which enhances the workability of the freedom concept. Another significant asset of the concept is its immediate controllability and if the circumstance is laid down in which an animal’s freedom is being obstructed then it will show that the animal has its right.
The animals need to be granted the right freedom just as human beings and therefore every one should have the right attitudes towards these animals whether domestic or the wild ones. Many people take advantage of the fact that animals have no better way to claim their rights and therefore the government has set the law to ensure that the animals are been taken care of and such practices such as hunting of the wild animals discouraged and a high penalty has to be paid.
Chapple, C.key. (1995). Non- violence to animals, earth, and self in Asian traditions: Delhi.
Christopher chapple.(1990).ecological prospects, scientific religious and aesthetic perspectives.yogi anand viraj. The yoga sutras of patanjali: an analysis of the Sanskrit with accompanying English translation: Delhi.
George, PhD, (1998). the yoga tradition: its history, literature, philosophy and practice, Arizona, Hahm press, P.176.