It has come to notice that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection known as spy-ro-keet. This is according to a report given by Benach, and Edward, 1988. Lyme disease can spread so easily when domestic animals are not properly prevented from these ticks. Tick is a parasite that can spread so easily in animals especially in domestic animals. Since the domestic animals are tamed by man, you find that the chances of a man getting in contact with a tick are so high.
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There have been many cases of people complaining of skin rashes, swollen joints, flu, and severe headache not knowing actually the cause of this disease. Severe symptoms are associated with this disease and need to be treated as soon as the symptoms are noticed. Some of its symptoms include swollen joints, skin rash, flu, severe headache and fever, muscle pain, stifle neck, and swelling of kneesLyme disease can be transmitted from one person to another when an infected tick bites you and then goes and bites another person.
So the main transmitter of Lyme disease is an infected tick. You find that since some people do not actually notice a tick bite, it is noticed that some people do not know if they have the disease so it can take long before someone notices the disease. During the early stages of the disease, doctors usually investigate the early symptoms of the disease in order to confirm whether you have the disease but during the later stages of the disease, doctors usually use lab tests in order to confirm whether you have the disease.
The ecology matters a lot in the spread of the disease. Anthropogenic factors and urbanization are associated with the spread of Lyme disease in the human population. You find that due to urbanization in many areas, the expansion of suburban neighborhoods had led to deforestation and increased border contacts between human and tick-dense areas. Due to the increased population in these areas then you find that most of the people live together with the animals and some even live in the same building with the animals and hence as a result, you find that there is close contact between the animals with the ticks and human beings and you find that spreading, in this case, becomes easier.
A brief history of the disease
The first record of Lyme disease was discovered in the year 1883 when several skin disorders were associated with the disease. The research was conducted based on the skin disorder to come out with the real cause of these symptoms. Arvid Afzelius who is a researcher carried out this research and discovered that the skin disorder led to rashes on the skin as a result of a bite by the name Ixodes tick. This skin disorder is normally found in the early stages of this infection and leads to Lyme disease.
Early stages of the disease
According to the two scientists Benach, and Edward, 1988, It is noticed that one of the early symptoms of Lyme disease is skin rush, which actually appears after a period of 30 days immediately after the tick bite. The rash by the name erythematic migrants immediately appears at the site of the tick bite which begins as a small red spot that later grows bigger and bigger. The skin rash may cause discomfort in the body since they lead to skin burn, which usually hitches. Other symptoms include fever, headaches, stifle neck, and fatigue. Lyme disease is known to spread to the other parts of the body like the heart and the nervous systems and this becomes very delicate and can cause death. An example can be shown below.
Late stages of Lyme disease
According to Ginsberg, 1993, it has been noticed that if the disease is not early treated, it can spread to other body parts like the heart and the nervous system. Some of these late symptoms include the following, one may experience painful and swollen joints and it affects the large joints such as the knee. When the disease affects the nervous system, it may lead to troubled concentration in the infected person, loss of memory, and muscle weakness. An example can be shown below.
How one can know whether he has Lyme disease
According to scientists Keirans, and Taina, 1989, In order for one to know whether he has Lyme disease, one needs to visit a doctor for testing of those symptoms before they spread to the other various body parts. In order for one to have good tests for the disease, 9one should not go for the blood test since the blood test leads to the false and misleading outcome since during the period of early symptoms of the disease, one does not have the necessary and enough antibodies to test positive for the disease.
Also since you find that most people take antibiotics, you find that if these antibodies are taken, then when one goes for a blood test, automatically the infected person will test negative for Lyme disease even though he may be positive for the disease. So in order to have the correct results for the disease, people with swollen joints and the nervous system disease need to see a special doctor whereby some part of the fluid is taken from the swollen joints and this fluid can then be tested for the disease.
How to treat Lyme disease
According to Ginsberg, 1993, Lyme disease during the early stages can be treated effectively by the use of antibiotics. It is known that during the first 30 days after the tick bite, the disease can be effectively treated by the use of antibiotics, which are proteins in the body and can cure the disease. The doctor gives the descriptions on how to use the antibiotics since if they are not used properly as directed by the doctor, the disease can quickly spread to the other body parts.
Prevention of Lyme disease
Drummond, 1998 in his book, 2nd edition said that prevention is better than cure. Since the main cause of Lyme disease is tick, the most effective way is to maintain cleanliness by ensuring that all the grass is cut near the people’s homesteads. Also when going to look after the cattle or farming, it is also advised that one should wear light-colored clothing which covers almost all of your skin since this light-colored clothing can make it possible for one to see a tick when it has stuck on your clothing.
It’s also advisable to insect repellants containing permethrin and one is supposed to apply this repellent on the skin as directed by the doctor. Also when you find that your animals are affected, it’s advisable to use acaricides, which is a known chemical for killing ticks. Also in order to prevent your animals from been affected, it’s advisable to practice zero grazings which actually ensures that your animals do not actually mix with other animals affected with ticks, and hence as a result, you find that the ticks carrying the disease have been destroyed and people are in a position to live in an environment free from Lyme disease.
Also by managing the host animals you find that the rate of transmission of the disease has been reduced. Hereby managing the host animals then you find that these animals are brought in to manageable levels like the dogs, cats, and other domestic animals since you find that they are the most transmitters of the disease. Also by reducing the populations of these animals, then you find that the cost of treating them has reduced, and hence as a result, you find that the farmer is in a position to weekly treat these animals by use of acaricides which helps prevent the spread of ticks.
Vaccination: There is a certain vaccine by the name Lymerix which was discovered by GlaxoSmithKline, which was actually proved to kill the outer service protein of Borrelia. Another prevention of Lyme disease is by removal of ticks. In this case, correct removal of tick head has proved to be an effective way of reducing the disease. You find that if the head is not properly removed, local infection of bite location may result, and hence it’s advisable to ensure that the heads of the ticks have been completely removing.
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By keeping our environment clean, we are in a position to minimize the spread of this disease. This is because tick bites are known to be the most transmitters of Lyme disease. You find that if the environment in which the people live is not clean, and then you find that ticks can invade that area leading to the infection. There are late and early symptoms and there is a need of visiting a doctor for an early checkup.
The early symptoms of the disease should be treated the moment one notices them. This is important to ensure that the disease can be prevented from spreading easily. Prevention is better than cure so in order to prevent further infection, it’s advisable to ensure that host animals are treated at least every week since it’s through treating them then you find that the ticks don’t spread so easily and are eventually controlled.
Ginsberg, H (1993). Ecology and environmental management of Lyme disease. Rutgers University press. pp. 225.
Drummond, R (1998). Ticks and what you can do about them, 2nd edition. Wilderness Press.pp. 75.
Keirans, J and Taina, R (1989). Pictorial key to the adults of hard ticks, family Ixodidae, East of the Mississippi, Journal of Medical entomology.pp. 480.
Sonenshine, D (1991). Biology of ticks, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, Oxford.pp. 440.
Benach, J and Edward, M (1988). Lyme disease and related disorders. Annals of New York academy of science. Volume 453.
Edlow, J (2003). Bull’s eye: unraveling the medical mystery of Lyme disease. Yale University press, New Haven.
Gray, J. OlafKahl, R and Gerold, S (2002). Lyme disease: Biology.Epidemiology, And control. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK.pp. 342.
Gerber, M and Bell, G (1996). Lyme disease in children in Southeastern Connecticut.New Eng, J.Med. 335.
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