What criteria are best used in selecting an existing instrument for a study of the determination of differences between male and female leadership within the educational environment
For a study of the determination of differences between male and female leadership within the educational environment one should consider such things as:
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- Confidence – men are thought to be more confident while women apologetic;
- Bluffing – men are willing to bluff to achieve their goals;
- Social risk – the tendency to yield to others and disagree with them;
- Emotional and facial recognition – the way social interactions are facilitated;
- Emotions and actions – reacting to feelings and responding through them;
- Decision-making – abstract and contextual;
- Outcomes – loses and gains;
- Uncertainty and risk – perception and reaction to confusing situations (Assessment instruments, 2015).
What considerations are important when designing an instrument to collect quantitative data?
When designing an instrument to collect quantitative data one is to consider their advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each. It is significant to pay attention to several aspects and choose the instrument on the basis of:
- Source – literature sources or responders/participants;
- Number – how many sources will be used;
- Time – how long one will collect needed data;
- Costs – what expenditures are needed (tools, training, transportation, etc.);
- Usage – when it can be used (what is desired, when the reliable data can be gained);
- Issue – can there be a variety of perspectives and topics discussed;
- Data – can nonverbal clues be perceived and analyzed; can additional information be gathered;
- Difficulties – are there any ways to adapt the instrument to the needs of the participants (NOAA, 2004).
What are the indicators a researcher should look for to ensure that the right balance of instrument use and decisive hypotheses testing might occur?
To ensure that the right balance of instrument use and decisive hypotheses testing might occur, the researcher is to evaluate the work and find out that the hypothesis can be proved by the literature background and personal study. It is important to be sure that the instruments chosen allow one to find the information regarding the issue and related to it. Thus, the comparison of the gained data and research objectives is to show that they coincide, so the testing environment is to be referred to as the real world phenomenon (Oliver, 2010).
What are other steps taken to determine external validity?
To determine external validity, one is to ensure generalization regarding the population and location. After testing the hypothesis, the researcher is to make conclusions that would be appropriate for the whole population and suggest future studies. The data is to be analyzed and interpreted so that the significance of the study is clear (External validity, 2006).
What risk management techniques would a researcher use to ensure that the zero-sum game status does not affect external validity?
A researcher should collect event inventories and loss event data and conduct a SWAT analysis to ensure that the zero-sum game status does not affect external validity. In other words, it is important to check strength and opportunities as well as weaknesses and threats of the study using the data from previous and current situations. Then one can implement risk mitigation (Schwulst, 2014).
Why would a researcher choose to create a new instrument as opposed to using an existing instrument
Many instruments are already created, and they are easy to use so that implementation does not take much time. Still, it is rather hard to find one that will fit the needs of specific research. So the advantage of creating a new one “is that you can customize the instrument to achieve very strong alignment” (Assessment instruments, 2015). Of course, this process will be resource-consuming but eventually, appropriate instruments will be gained.
If the concept has several different dimensions what is the best approach to measurement?
If the concept has several different dimensions, it should be measured regarding each of them. Then while evaluating and describing received data, the researcher should tell how they correlate and influence one another. It is also possible to select only the most crucial dimension if the study allows (Babbie, 2007).
Assessment instruments. (2015). Web.
Babbie, E. (2007). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
External validity. (2006). Web.
NOAA. (2004). Designing evaluation. Web.
Oliver, P. (2010). Understanding the research process. New york, NY: SAGE.
Schwulst, B. (2014). Risk management techniques and strategies for risk managers. Web.