The creation of Nation-state
A nation-state is a jurisdiction or an administrative area that has people who maintain national identity and have their own national administration. England is an example of a nation-state in Europe. It was established way back in the eleventh century when the men of the Renaissance started agitating for reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. Later, these reforms came to be known as the Protestant Reforms. These reforms led to the emergence of a nation-state with fully established bureaucracies, boundaries, jurisdiction, and even legislations. Local language, in this case, English, started being used in local institutions of learning instead of Latin.
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Additionally, the country started replacing Roman laws with their own local and national laws. Furthermore, in place of the Roman or papacy authority or some form of universal code, the English state became the main source of the law and authority.
Lebanon is another nation-state outside Europe. It was created in the early 20th century by the French. Lebanon as a nation-state was uniquely created or separated from Syria just to maintain some form of political sovereignty of its Christian people. During this time, the government system was created to ensure that power was equally shared amongst the many religious groups including Maronite Christians, Shii Muslims, Druze, and Sunni Muslims. In short, the major result was the creation of a westernized society with its own traditional cultures and religion.
Factors that led to the collapse of the Qing Empire
The collapse of the Qing Dynasty was attributed to three main factors, along with some other underlying reasons. Qing Dynasty relied heavily on its army and, due to corruption, it did not manage to support the army leading to its collapse. Additionally, the empire concentrated a lot on fighting or conquering other areas for business reasons. With this, the empire did not invest a lot in the army for protection reasons.
Everybody including the military officials was corrupt, an aspect that made it hard for them to be responsive to issues of security and the future. Qing Dynasty also collapsed because of the failure by China to reform, coupled with unending uprisings. Some of these uprisings included the boxer rebellion. Last but not least, the fall of the Qing Dynasty was attributed to the economic decline of the empire. Meaning that the empire was not able to sustain its operations leading to its collapse.
The fall of the Ottoman Empire
The factors that led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire were varied. First, the sultans were weak and incompetent. Some of the Sultans were indolent and dissolute, an aspect that led to their defeat by the western powers. The empire was characterized by corrupt judicial and executive officers. They did not want to collaborate with their subjects on important matters, an aspect that made other people envious and opted to work with enemies instead.
The other reason for the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was the rise of nationalism. In the eighteenth century, the ethnic groups started demanding their own leadership different from the Ottoman’s leadership. Some of these groups included the Albanians and Kurds. They strongly rested the Ottoman’s leadership.
Migration is the movement of people away from a certain place due to unpleasing factors to another place where factors favor their existence. Examples are the Chinese immigration, Irish migration, and Jewish emigration.
By 1870, the number of Chinese immigrants in the United States had reached about sixty thousand. This population continued to increase in the 20th century. The main cause of this kind of migration was opportunities in the industrial sector in the US and educational opportunities. Specifically, there was a growth of British Imperial influence resulting in increased social disruption and taxes that restricted economic opportunity for many people.
Consequences of Chinese immigration
One of the major consequences of rural-urban migration is overcrowding or congestion in urban areas. It may also lead to the overuse of resources in urban areas.
In the mid-1840s, there was a potato famine, which led to the death of most people. This forced them to look for other places to farm. The other reason was the idea of English Enclosure. That is why most Irish people were forced by the Church leaders to raise cattle specifically for the English or British market.
Irish immigrants were discriminated against and, just like blacks, were stereotyped. They were also viewed and treated as inferior and unwelcome outsiders to the United States.
Between 1820 to about 1925, most Jewish people moved to the United States. The first Jew migration involved about 2.5 million Jews from Europe. The main cause was the increased persecution of Jews in Europe. The other reason was a lack of economic opportunities in the native lands. In short, economic hardship and political unrest were major factors that motivated their migration.
As the number of Jews increased, the United States was forced to enact restrictive laws. This was immediately after WWI. These laws were invented to put a limit on the number of immigrants, especially of Jew origin.
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The WWI reflected both change and continuity in world history
Most scholars indicate that the WWI ushered or reflected change and continuity in the entire world. For this to be well explored, the discussion will be centered on American society. For the WWI to reflect the change, that change had already started before the war. This is true particularly when the pre-war paintings of both Kandinsky and Picasso are taken into consideration. Their work had started making use of women, especially when depicting their significance and role in the general society.
Previously, women were not given such an important chance to serve their own society. During WWI women were offered opportunities in industries that produced war products. The previous civil war in the late 19th century had prompted the federal government to enhance their battlefields, and during WWI, the world witnessed the birth of the advanced or modern battlefield including modern styles of warfare.
In addition, since absolute power was vested in the presidency, it had become difficult to check the presidency and the control of organizations. So, the federal government had started delegating powers to agencies to oversee state functions on behalf of the president. This was reflected during WWI when the number of federal bureaucracies increased. In terms of continuity, period from the WWI to the late 1980s was a time of extremes. In fact, the start of the 20th century was characterized by communism, fascism as well as cold wars. It ended with the fall of the Wall of Berlin. In other words, the world had already positioned itself for these events before WWI started.