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Nationalism and Identity among Middle East Immigrants in Australia Report (Assessment)

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Updated: May 21st, 2019

Introduction

Nationalism is a sense of feeling where particular groups of people identify themselves with certain cultures, beliefs, traditions, norms, and are guided by similar law. People develop deeper sense of responsibility to each other in an attempt to accomplish common objectives and aims. The nation has a certain belief towards the right to statehood.

The members of a state develop a citizenship belief with some degree of cultural identity. People dedicate their lives to developing their nation by working hard since they believe that their state is powerful to all others. Each society has its own ways of doing things, which varies greatly with those of other societies. Globalization has made it easier for people to meet and interact in politics and economics.

People compete for markets and political domination making each group to unite to achieve collective bargaining in multilateral interactions. Social struggles and intrigues are the threats to nationalism. This paper examines how Middle Eastern citizens living in Australia join hands in their quest for supremacy.

The major purpose of the essay is to understand scientific research methodologies, their use and applications in real practice. The paper uses three articles talking about nationalism among Middle immigrants. The methodologies involved in the articles are analyzed with the purpose of conceptualizing research methods.

Catarina Kinnvall: Globalization and Religion: Self, Identity and the search for Ontological Security

The article analyses how states and nations have regrouped to form a strong sense of belonging after the 9/11 attack to the world trade center. Middle Eastern citizens continue living in fear since they do not know when the Americans will strike while the Americans have established all possible measures to contain terrorism.

The article reports that the existing international system puts states in precarious conditions because of suspicion and mistrusts, Israelis are always in strategy meetings to see how they can continue surviving in the Arab dominated region. Security is always tight in western countries because of the unknown, the fear of the darkness. Travelers undergo serious security checks at termini.

Citizens have become weary of foreigners and refugees. They view refugees are threats to national security and opportunities in their societies. All these have been brought about by globalization. There is free movement of goods and services (Kinnvall, 2004, p. 24)

The markets are open to all individuals in the global society implying that liberalism is embraced by all states. This has led to increased competition where weak companies and organizations exist at the mercy of the mighty ones. Egalitarianism and democratization process have changed societal social structure where the traditional exercise of power has been abolished.

People no longer identify themselves with race, class and gender but common aspirations and values are what people hold and identify themselves with. Societies have grown to a level of complexity where they interact for some time and develop new norms and regulations.

The society is very dynamic unlike the traditional society, which was static. Norms and cultures are no longer passed from one generation to another instead; generations acquire new norms that help them to cope with the changing society. One universal law such as international human rights that operate in all states governs the modern society (Kinnvall, 2004, p. 35).

The Middle East citizens living in Australia identify the aims they want and join hands in accomplishing them. They use all means including lobbying government to achieve their goals. Their representatives in government are part of them. This is what happens in the U.S. where Israelis have representatives in government to assist them achieve their goals.

Methodology Used

The writer should have applied sampling in doing the research. The whole population cannot be used to obtain information. Instead, a small percentage of the whole population is selected in order to determine the results. The specific sampling technique used is multistage sampling where the population is grouped together and clusters selected. Individual elements are not considered in this type of sampling.

The technique is meant for large populations. The writer began by selecting continents then he narrowed down to countries and finally went to communities. This kind of sampling ensures representativeness. The samples obtained will correctly take into consideration the views of the study population.

The research being conducted in the article involves learning of behavior. The researcher should take time with the population to study their ways of life by interacting with them. Through interaction, the researcher can observe the trends of life and record. The researcher must be around for him/her to judge by him/herself the moods and tempers of the population understudy.

Facial expressions are important in research since they reveal some feelings that the correspondence might be reluctant to volunteer. Observed information does not rely on the past or future behavior. The information is directly related to what is happening currently to the population.

Because of the expensive nature of observation method of data collection, the researcher can seek the services of enumerators to assist in data collection. The enumerators are given required training and sent to the field with specific questions to guide them on the type of information to be collected. The researcher keeps on checking the enumerators to ensure that whatever they are doing in the fields are correct.

Rae Heather: State Identities and the Homogenization of Peoples

The article claims that because of increasing insecurity and state identities, governments are reasserting their positions by strengthening their armies and promoting democracies. Those in government are suspicious that the foreigners pose threats to their relatives and families.

The government officials struggle for homogenization by organizing attacks to the perceived foreigners. This has led to instabilities in most parts of the world such as Rwanda in Africa, Middle East states and South America. The unprivileged politically find themselves being pushed to the periphery by the powerful.

The underprivileged are perceived as betrayers and are therefore expected to operate from outside the state territory. This forces them to seek asylum and refugee status in other states. This has seen quite a good number of refugees arriving in Australia from Middle East. The civil wars in Afghanistan and Yugoslavia forced many citizens to seek safety in Australia.

The immigrants consider themselves people of the same needs and problems. Once they obtain Australian citizenship, they forge a working unity to realize their potentials. They establish a sense of belonging and feeling that act as a bond among them (Rae, 2002, p. 4-6).

Methodology

The research relied heavily on secondary data. The researcher visited libraries and the internet to obtain critical information about the behavior of states in the international system. The investigator identified the problem and defined it within its precincts. In social research, nothing is new. Whatever we investigate is always in existence. We only add knowledge the available ones or we provide more understanding.

Relevant articles were identified and content analysis done on them. Most of the researches should undergo literature review to determine what exists and where the previous researchers went wrong. Without visiting secondary data, it would be difficult for a researcher to get started.

This would further lead to generalization of too much information that is irrelevant. Collected information should be help in some ways such as solving social problems afflicting society, academic utility that can further be modeled to come up with theories.

Goode Eric and Nachman Ben-Yehuda: Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance

The article argues that societies are panicking about the regrouping of communities by leaders. Some groups belief that the problems in society are brought by specific groups. The communities cooperate to achieve their aspirations in life. They come into conflict with each other while trying to advance their interests.

The conflicts divide the society into groups, each group identify itself with some lifestyles such as mode of dressing and music, religion. In an attempt to outdo the other, groups brand each other. One group might be identified with some weird behaviors such as Japanese in Australia who are known for gambling. Chinese are believed to be corrupt that is, they use dirty tricks to acquire wealth and resources.

The Americans are blamed in Australia for introducing a bad behavior of resisting arrest. The Australian society does not want to come to the existing reality that social problems are caused by multiplicity of factors. The social problems are heterogeneous meaning that they can happen within any social context.

We have Middle East citizens who are murderers and at the same time, we hear of murder among Briton populations. The writers conclude by recommending that the society should come to the reality of accepting diversity and taking objective perspectives in judging problems (Goode & Nachman, 1994, p. 35).

Methodology

The kind of information contained in the article requires sampling. The sampling technique to be applied is deliberate where the researcher determines the people to interview. The investigator should first identify the problem statement. Once the problem is identified, he/she can check in the internet or available materials to determine the facts and hypothesis. Sampling cannot be random since the key informants might be left out.

The researcher chooses the most convenient place to sample since some places are inaccessible because of either insecurity or poor infrastructure. The researcher therefore should exercise objectivity since the research relies on his fairness. The data collection methods used is telephone interview and mailing. The researcher resorts to the methods because they are convenient and cheap as compared to observation.

The researcher hence knows the telephoned or mailed respondents no need of spending too much. Whatever the researcher will be doing is to survey the people not studying it in detail. The labeling theory is more utilized in the above article hence the writer must have relied also on the secondary data.

Importance of the Methods

Methods are the techniques used by researchers in undertaking research. The researchers choose carry out either a case study or surveys. Case studies are advisable in investigations involving human behavior. Human behavior is very complex to understand. The researchers need some time to learn what people like or do not like.

The way people behave is not uniform, human actions can be quantified because of its unpredictability nature. Survey studies are easier and cheap to undertake. They summarize data mathematically. The methods use in research assist in establishing which criteria should be used in collecting data. The first category of methods includes the libraries where the data available is analyzed.

The researcher records notes as he/she reads books or can as well watch/listen to tapes and analyze the information contained therein. The recorded information of books is then compiled statistically by way of manipulation. The researcher should interpret the collected information to suit the hypothesis. The investigator finally must provide references to the collected information and if possible provide abstract guides.

The second group of methods consists of techniques used for establishing some link between the known and unknown data. The techniques are statistical and it includes field research. The first type of observation is non-participant direct observation where by the researcher uses scorecards to collect information. The other way that information can be collected is through interactional recording where tapes and photographs are used.

This participant observation is preferred to non-participative because the researcher is able to observe other things apart from data. Mass observation is also applied in collection of data where the researcher interviews the respondents using independent observers in public places.

The mailed questionnaire and opinionative questionnaires are used to identify social and economic background of the interviewed population. Researchers to follow up questionnaires apply telephone surveys.

Sometimes the researchers may want to analyze a complex occurrence. Case studies and life histories are used for that matter. The method is applied to collect data for further analysis. The last data collection category is equated to laboratory research.

This technique employs devices such as audio-visual recording and use of experts in observing the occurrences. Small groups are therefore used as samples and the samples are selected randomly.

Basis of Scientific Research Methods

The research methods aim at making adequate and reliable statements about social-economic and political phenomena. The data collected relies on the methodology used. Data collected in social research relies on empirical evidence. Statements arrived at can be tested scientifically. It means that scientific methods rely on observation, testing and verification.

The empiricism of scientific methods allows logic to be applied in detecting societal problems. The methods use relevant concepts such as those derived from theories. A theory is a refined body of knowledge that scholars apply in interpreting issues. The methods do not take sides meaning that they only aim at objective truth. Subjectivity is highly discouraged in social research.

Researchers must take neutral stands in fact they should never try to interpret data to suit their wimps or wishes. The information obtained through application of methods result to probabilistic predictions. The data can be used for planning.

Relevance: Quantitative and Quantitative Research Methods

The two are most commonly used methodologies. The former uses numbers to summarize data while the latter give the exact information. Quantitative research is more of analytical, it analyses available data to arrive at conclusions while quantitative research is descriptive meaning that it gives raw data.

It the follows that quantitative research is advisable at the advanced stage of research while quantitative is to be applied at the earlier stages of research project. Researchers choose the type of research depending on the available time and resources.

Quantitative method is less time consuming and economical, it is best for surveys. It is recommended for natural scientists while qualitative research is expensive, it is recommended for case studies.

Conclusion

Research constitutes defining and redefining problems and formulating hypothesis. The research process consists of a series of actions that must be applied in conducting research to obtain good results. The research process starts with formulating the problem.

Either problems can be natural or relational that is, those that exist among people. The next stage after identifying the problem is reviewing literature; a researcher is advised to investigate on what has already been done. This enables intensive enquiry into the problem. The research should have a working hypothesis. These are tentative assumptions applied to test the hypothesis.

The researcher needs to come up with a research design. He/she should know which type of research will be best suited to the topic, will it be case study, survey, experiment, quantitative or qualitative.

Sampling is the last item in the process. The researcher should come up with the most representative sample to avoid the biases that crop up because of sampling. Research is incomplete without one of the steps. One of the objectives of research is to portray accurately the features of an individual. The researchers should be careful to arrive at this accuracy.

References

Goode, E. & Nachman, B. (1994) Moral Panics, the Social Construction of Deviance. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kinnvall, C. (2004) Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity and the search for Ontological Security. Political Psychology, 25(5), 741-767

Rae, H. (2002) State Identities and Homogenization of Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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