Nudges are small influences that can affect the choices people make without changing the nature of the question too much. They can be both external, such as item order in a list of options, and internal, such as anchors. Nudges demonstrate how humans find it difficult to make informed decisions by considering every available factor and attempt to simplify problems so that the choice is easier.
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Choice architects are people or organizations that have power over the shaping of some choice. They do not have to be able to alter the options, as making design decisions is enough. Search engines such as Google can serve as an example, as they can shape the information that people find by arranging results in a specific manner. Most people will only read the first few results, and their understanding can be shaped if one offers specific options.
Overall, humans are not mathematical systems that can collect information and think about it for as long as they want. Often, they have to decide as soon as possible while working with small amounts of knowledge. The choice of a college by high school students serves as an example, as they often do not know what they want and choose based on prestige or ease of admission. Then, after they finish their higher education, they realize they are not ready for the workplace and regret their decision.
Also, some people have power over others’ decisions and a corresponding responsibility to present the questions to do the most good. There are no ethically correct answers to many such concerns. So, they have to think carefully about their objectives and the implications of their actions.