Otitis Media (OM) is an infection of the middle ear. However, this inflammation is not common to adults but rather common among young children. The inflammation is always accompanied by a viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and normally occurs in children who are between the ages of four to seven. One of the reasons why this disease is mainly found in children includes; anatomic differences of skull base and Eustachian tube as well as biological susceptibility.
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The information by Block, S. L. (1997) on Causative pathogens, antibiotic resistance and therapeutic considerations in acute otitis media can be categorized as a filtered source as it provides information that has been scrutinized and approved for publication. The article generally builds from existing information to give further direction on how otitis media can be tackled. Block notes that this disease has become very common among very many young children in the United States of America and thus needs more attention. He therefore suggests the way to go.
On the other hand the information provided by Kelley, Friedman & Johnson, (2007) on ear, nose, and throat can be classified as an unfiltered resource. This is because the information they provide in their discussion is very recent in the medical field and therefore the medical practitioners cannot rely on it wholly. This is informed by the fact that some of the issues that they raise are new to some of the medical practitioners. In order to solve this problem, practical tests should be done in order to prove its credibility. After, the tests have been done then the information provided can either be accepted or rejected depending on the results obtained.
In regards to works by American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians (2004), however, this has turned out to be a filtered resource. This is informed by the fact that, their article tends to appraise the quality of studies besides making recommendations for this practice to be carried on with. This article accepts that Otitis Media is fast becoming a common disease among young kids. In its recommendation, it states that thorough research should be carried out to ensure that a permanent solution to this problem is found so that cases of children going deaf especially in the third world countries is reduced. If the recommendations are adopted by the relevant authorities, it claims that in the long run this disease is going to be eliminated in the world.
Just like the work by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians, McCracken, (1998) advocates for a comprehensive research in order to unlock the puzzle on the treatment of acute otitis media in an era of increasing microbial resistance. In his work, he observes that unless researcher gets down to a serious research on this disease, it is going to continue affecting many children while making some of them become deaf. Therefore based on the information that he has provided, his work can be classified as a filtered resource. It is worth noting that although the authors have different approaches in which they perceive this disease, one thing is common among them; that is this disease needs to be tackled as fast as possible before it becomes a serious threat to the children.
Interviewing a child’s parent can provide an important source of information on how the condition developed. Interviews are classified as unfiltered primary sources of information due to the fact that the interviewee may twist or forget some facts that will need to be confirmed later. Interviews provide primary information that was that cannot be provided by any other source. The information gained from interviewing a parent of a child suffering from otitis media may provide important information that can inform the therapeutic approach.
As earlier stated all of these sources have one thing in common of trying to look for solution of tackling Otitis media. For example the work by Block, S. L. (1997) on Causative pathogens, antibiotic resistance and therapeutic considerations in acute otitis media gives the medical practitioners including nurses a clear insight on what this type of disease is. Therefore, having gone through these writings medical practitioners will be in a better position to recommend prescriptions to the patients and as a result reduce the reported cases of Otitis Media. Nevertheless, nurses and doctors will be well equipped with the information that they should disseminate to the children’s patients. The information may contain ways of preventing a child from contracting the disease and also some of the signs to look out for to know whether the child is suffering from this kind of disease.
The work by Kelley, Friedman & Johnson, (2007) on ear, nose, and throat, can not be used in this nursing practice. This is because some of their findings are new in the field. Therefore, unless the information is well authenticated, nurses and doctors specializing in this field may not use it in all their work. What is required for this work to be accepted is thorough test on whatever claim that has been made by the authors. During their research, they might have generalized some of their findings that may not be applicable to some patients when it is put into practice.
American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians (2004) work can be of great help in the nursing practice. This decision is informed by the fact that it is advocating for more research to be carried out so that a permanent solution is found. Therefore, if what it recommends is taken into account, then cases of Otitis Media is likely to go down or even cease to exist because the disease will have been wiped out completely.
Furthermore, McCracken (1998) raises issues similar to the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. Therefore we can say that this evidence is suitable for the nursing practice. In his discussion, he has claimed that Otitis Media is treatable although the disease is beginning to show some signs of resistance to drugs. To counter this resistance he says that medical researchers should look for other types of medicine that will deal with Otitis Media once and for all. Therefore, this method should be used in the nursing practice because it is going to offer a solution to many people in need treatment.
Interviews can be an important source of evidence. Interviews yield first hand information that is very important for the therapeutic approach that will be taken. It’s an important source of patient history, especially if there is no other source to inform about a given condition. For instance, parental interviews will tell whether a certain case of otitis media is a new case or has been treated before and will thus guide the clinician on the therapeutic approach to be considered. Interviewing experts in a given area provides a good source of evidence. However, interviews have a limitation because the information yielded can not be verified easily. Thus misleading or false information can be given.
Causative pathogens, antibiotic resistance and therapeutic considerations in acute Otitis media by Block (1997) can be classified as primary research evidence because in his discussion he has explained that a research was conducted in order to arrive in their conclusions. A group of medical researchers examined a number of children who were suffering from this disease. It is from the observations they made that they were able to come to a conclusion on the causes, and symptoms of Otitis Media. On the other hand American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians (2004), Kelley, Friedman & Johnson, (2007), and McCracken, (1998) can be said to be an evidence-based guideline. This is because they analyzed the work of the other researchers when arriving at their conclusions.
Interviews are sources of primary research evidence as they provide information that cannot be gotten from other sources. Interviews provide information that reflects the real situation on the ground unlike other sources that may provide information that has been overtaken by new findings. Based on the information gathered through interviews, a study can be undertaken to observe the condition.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians (2004), watchful waiting is an appropriate method for treating kids with acute Otitis Media because it gives a chance to the clinicians to observe the children when they start to exhibit signs of Otitis media. It states that when a clinician is making an observation on the child he or she can enquire on the history of the family in regard to the disease. It is after getting to know this kind of information that the medical practitioner can prescribe a suitable medication for the child.
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In an attempt to improve the nursing practice in the clinics, it is recommended that nurses and other medical practitioners adhere to the rules governing their work. For example in the prescription of drugs, patients should be given the correct drugs and in the correct quantity. This is because of age factor and body’s ability to resist drugs since different people have different reactions to drugs. In addition to that, the medical practitioners should be advised to make sure that, they look at the history of the patient to establish if the disease can be found in any other member of the family. Due to the pain associated with the Otitis Media the nurses and the doctors should make sure that pain killers are administered to the patients on time.
When carrying out a research of any nature, there are certain issues that the researcher has to bear in mind; these are the ethical issues. He or she should assess the probable repercussions associated with that research so that he or she can put adequate measure to avoid such eventualities. Therefore when carrying out a research on ways of changing clinical practice guidelines based on the evidence based research the researcher should first of all look at the cultural values of a people. This is because there are certain communities that associate certain diseases with witchcraft and therefore when it comes to providing medicine for such diseases it becomes a difficult task. In addition, one should try at his or her level best to keep all the information submitted confidential. If this is not the case, people who gave out the information may be victimized by the other members of the community. Furthermore, the researcher should try to establish the reliability of the information received especially if it is a case involving children. This is because children might share out information that is not true.
There are set out guidelines that should be adhered to if a research involving children is to be conducted. The guidelines are provided and implemented by the research ethics authority of the given area.The guidelines stipulate that the research should not pose more than the minimum risk, and if the risk is more than minimum then the research should be able to present a direct benefit to the subject or generate more knowledge on the condition being investigated. In communities that have certain other beliefs that may constraint the research, parental consent may be sought or not depending on the directions provided by the ethics committee of a given area.
Otitis Media is a disease that has continued to affect many young children across the world. In spite of many medical discoveries, many children have continued being victims of this disease. Therefore, the government should come up with an awareness campaign to enlighten the parents on how to prevent their children from contracting the disease and the symptoms to look out for to identify the ailment in their children.
American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004.) Clinical practice guideline: Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Web.
Block, S. L. (1997). Causative pathogens, antibiotic resistance and therapeutic considerations in acute Otitis Media. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 16, 449–456.
Kelley, P. E., Friedman, N. & Johnson, C. (2007). Ear, nose, and throat. In W. W. Hay, M. J. Levin, J. M. Sondheimer, & R. R. Deterding (Eds.), Current pediatric diagnosis and treatment (18th Ed). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.
McCracken, G. H. (1998). Treatment of acute otitis media in an era of increasing microbial resistance. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 17, 576–579.