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Philosophers and Their Concepts Report (Assessment)

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Updated: Mar 13th, 2020

Edvard Munch (1863-1944)

Bischoff and Hulse divulge that Munch is a Norwegian artist who founded the concept of expressionism. His works from 1890 appear to be more conversant with people; as a result, they inspire modern artists.

In his work Munch emblematically depicts themes like fatality, illness, and desolation. One of his paintings named the scream is perhaps the most popular, and in its artistic content, it elaborates how illogical life is to mankind.

The scream expresses the feeling of fright and segregation brought about by the happenings in the world (Bischoff & Hulse 42).

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

He is considered as one of the key figures who brought about and advanced the concept of existentialist; hence his work was mainly related to ontology and phenomenology.

Most importantly, he asked the question; what is being? He related the existence of human to getting engrossed into the habitual activities of the world concerning the symbolic insinuation.

He depicts the fact that human beings suffer a lot in life knowing there is no supreme truth but they still, go ahead to make choices.

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

He invented and advanced existentialism which is a philosophy of existence. Also, he is accredited to have developed an ontological concept of the quintessence of being human. Most importantly, Sartre was interested in understanding why human beings exist.

It is evident that the two main forms of beings that Sartre developed were the being-in-itself that relates to the existence of objects and the being-for-itself that relates to the existence of human beings.

He describes the emotion as the perception that has been projected on to authenticity (Sartre 95).

Erikson (1902-1994)

Erikson developed the physiosocial theory of development, thus coming up with the eight stages of human development. Similarly, he acknowledged Feud’s developmental theories; however; he believes that feud was wrong about some essential concepts of human development.

In feud’s theories of development, he insists that human beings traits are determined by the age of five. On the contrary, Erikson highlights that traits are developed through our one’s life. The first theme that his philosophy is the base on is that a person’s surrounding broadens as time passes by.

While the second is that when a person fails in life, the let downs accumulates. It is noteworthy that, during the development of his theory he divided life into eight stages that extend from infancy to maturity.

Nietzsche (1844-1900)

He previously pursued theology which he abandoned for philology. It is noteworthy that he was a master in classical literature. Thus, he became a teacher by profession but got forced out of practice because of his ill health. This meant he had to quit teaching at an early stage of his career.

In his book called Twilight of the idols, he criticized the traditions practiced by the Greek. He affirmed that the philosophies on the concepts of religion and custom are harmful to life.

Additionally, he believed that these philosophies act as obstacles towards the achievement of an individuals dream.

Most importantly, he insisted on the assumption that God is dead and that humans were exaggerating the concept of Superman in him. In conclusion, he advised that before philosophy is imposed on mankind it is important to evaluate the influences it will have on its subjects.

Albert Camus (1913-1960)

Bronner highlights that Camus was a political journalist before quitting and concentrating on the writing of essays and fiction. Also, he wrote and produced plays in theatres. It is noteworthy that he once produced a play that was banned on the political rationale.

In his essay, the myth of Sisyphus, he depicts that suicide is the only significant concept in philosophy. He further affirms that the fundamental question in philosophy is best answered when an individual decides whether to live or not.

He compares ludicrousness in human life to the labors executed by the fabled character Sisyphus. The character was predestined forever to push a ball to the zenith of the hill and stare at it as it rolled down (Bronner 39).

Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

Soren was known to many as the father of existentialism. He is said to be among the pioneer philosophers who defended the religious faith of human beings. Furthermore, he opposed all strict philosophical ideas while at the same time failed to reveal his thoughts.

It is noteworthy that he lived in anguish, fear, and doubt. Most importantly, he opposed the philosophical arguments that proved the existence of God and the presence of Jesus by considering it incongruous from a normal perspective.

On the contrary, he proposed that believers should have the autonomy to choose their faith. Kierkegaard suggested three categories of human existence.

There was an aesthetic stage which identifies the traits of an individual while the ethical stage represented the prevailing social norms in human beings.

Lastly, in the religious stage, he divulges that an individual’s faith should not be dictated upon by church doctrines or any other person, not even the clergy (Hannay & Kierkegaard 37).

Works Cited

Bischoff, Ulrich & Hulse, Michael. Edvard Munch: 1863-1944. Cologne: The Munich-Ellingsen group, 2000. Print.

Bronner, Stephen. Camus: Portrait of a Moralist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.

Hannay, Alastair & Kierkegaard, Søren. The sickness unto death: a Christian psychological exposition for edification and awakening. London, LDN: Penguin Classics group. 1989 print.

Sartre, Paul. Being and nothingness: an essay on phenomenological ontology. Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2000. Print.

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