PICO strategy is used to establish a research question, using four elements: patient or problem, intervention, comparison, and outcome. These aspects help to form a question for further studies.
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- P – Patient/Problem: The patients of this topic are pregnant women.
- I – Intervention: Prenatal breastfeeding education is the main way to influence the rates of breastfeeding.
- C – Comparison: The comparison between three main courses of action can be made. These courses include formal education on the topic of breastfeeding, informal individual research, and the absence of any type of education (no education).
- O – Outcome: The results of this study will determine the rates of women that engage in formula feeding and breastfeeding of their children (formula feeding and breastfeeding rates).
Final question: How does knowledge about breastfeeding impact a mother’s decision to initiate breastfeeding?
The research of this issue involves creating or assessing an intervention program for pregnant women that is used to educate them on the topic of breastfeeding. Thus, the type of clinical scenario is connected to therapy and prevention. The study involves separating women into three groups that engage in different kinds of education or do not undergo any learning processes. Thus, the first group is subjected to special and formal education on this topic, the second group of women performs informal research according to their own terms and abilities, and the last group receives no instructing whatsoever.
The academic paper that will display the results of the research can be presented in the form of a research project or presentation to show the effects of education and assess the need to create specific programs for pregnant women.
Type of Study
The type of investigation should reflect the details of the research problem. To follow the patients’ education and see the results of their choices, one can use an observational study to explore the outcomes of the learning process and assess the rates of women using different types of feeding. However, various studies already have refined information on this topic. For example, a systematic review may yield more results, and a meta-analysis can show the specifics that influence the mothers’ opinions on breastfeeding. Moreover, the option of choosing a systematic review from previous researchers is a viable option for gathering large amounts of evidence. Thus, a systematic review or a meta-analysis can be considered for this research.
Main Topics and Alternative Terms
Primary Terms and Synonyms
Patient/Problem: “Pregnant women” OR (“pregnant” AND “women).
Intervention: Prenatal AND (“breast feeding” OR (“breast” AND “feeding”) OR “breastfeeding”) AND (“education” OR “educational status” OR (“educational” AND “status”)).
Comparison: Formal AND prenatal AND (“breast feeding” OR (“breast” AND “feeding”) OR “breastfeeding”) AND (“education” OR “educational status” OR (“educational” AND “status”)).
Outcome: (“food, formulated” OR (“food” AND “formulated”) OR “formulated food” OR “formula”) AND feeding AND (“breast feeding” OR (“breast” AND “feeding”) OR “breastfeeding”) AND (“initiation” AND “rate”) OR “outcomes” OR “results” OR “effectiveness”).
- Publication date: 5 years.
- Language: English
- Article types: Systematic review or meta-analysis.
Irrelevant Terms (Operator NOT)
Some irrelevant terms may include such words as antenatal, neonatal, adolescent, postpartum, and postdischarge. These words are associated with topics that explore various situations after a child’s birth. The research in question is concerned with pregnant women. Thus, these terms should be avoided.
- PubMed has numerous records on biomedical topics. Such papers as a study by Amick, Savage, Brewer, Wallace, and McKasson (2016) can be found through this database. PubMed has an integrated MeSH search and many findings relevant to the discussed question.
- CINAHL is a source for nursing studies.
- COCHRANE Database of Systematic Reviews has different research papers, systematic reviews, and clinical trials.
Amick, S., Savage, J., Brewer, M., Wallace, M., & McKasson, S. (2016). Statewide breastfeeding education program improves maternity staff knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. J Comm Pub Health Nurs, 2(4), 1-7.