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The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol comprises eight stages (What Is the SIOP Model? 2016, para.1). The stage of Building Background is the second stage for basic fluency, followed by the Comprehensible Input stage (Eight components of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, 2016, para. 2). In order to adapt the selected science lesson plan to the needs of students with varied English proficiency level, it is necessary to consider the Proficiency Level Descriptors at each stage.
In the Building Background stage, the selected science lesson about chemical reactions requires students to discuss cause-and-effect relationships, as well as formulate sentences with an if…then pattern to illustrate the nature of chemical reactions discussed (Create SIOP science project: Lesson 12 chemical reactions, 2016, p. 1). In order to differentiate between the four levels of proficiency, it is crucial to adjust the pre-reading activities, vocabulary practice, reading comprehension, and other parts of the lesson to the language level of particular students.
It is necessary to divide the class into four groups according to their proficiency level and have them discuss the factors affecting chemical reactions, such as temperature, surface area, and concentration. Students with the first proficiency level will express their ideas using simpler vocabulary and simple sentences, while the second-level group will use combinations of simple structures and linking words (Council of Chief State School Officers, n.d., p. 2).
The third-level group will employ complex sentences and effectively convey their ideas in if…then statements, while the fourth-level group will use a wider vocabulary and detailed, descriptive complex sentence structures. The Building Background Stage will allow for teaching new concepts and causal relationships in ways suitable for each level. This task will be accomplished through guided comprehension activity, four squares vocabulary exercise for the first-level students, as well as concept maps for more advanced participants.
In the Comprehensible Input stage, the new material is further adjusted to each proficiency level. To address the needs of the first-level students, it is necessary to employ Comprehensible Input methods, such as Total Physical Response and Vocabulary Picture Puzzles. By using these methods, it is possible to convey the ideas concerning the basic chemical reactions. Thus, the definitions of catalysts and inhibitors can be explained as well.
Vocabulary Cards and Similar Words and Opposite Words can be employed with second- and third-level proficiency students to illustrate the concepts of catalysts and inhibitors. Video resources can be used as an additional method for the fourth-level proficiency students. Sentence constructions such as if… then, when… happens, then… occurs can be taught by means of Read Along Audio Files, as well as using other Comprehensible Input methods. Audio files should be adjusted to each proficiency level in order to ensure comprehension of the studied material. The mentioned constructions, indispensable for the purposes of discussing chemical reactions and factors that affect them, are to be introduced gradually.
The Building Background stage should lay the foundations for the next stage, providing the students of all proficiency levels with clear examples of the proper use of these phrases. The Comprehensible Input stage should widen the students’ vocabulary in order to employ it while talking about chemical reactions using the necessary phrases.
In order to properly differentiate between students of various proficiency level, it is necessary to use the Proficiency Level Descriptors for ELP. The mentioned stages of SIOP for basic fluency are to introduce new concepts related to chemical reactions, widen the students’ vocabulary and improve their use of simple and complex sentences, as well as of the phrases needed to talk about chemistry. The foundations laid in the Building Background stage are used in the following stage of Comprehensible Input and are improved upon using an array of classroom activities.
Council of Chief State School Officers. (n.d.). Proficiency level descriptors for English language proficiency standards. Web.
Eight components of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. (2016). Web.
What is the SIOP model? (2016). Web.