Home > Free Essays > Sciences > Agriculture > Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle
Cite this

Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle Research Paper


Abstract

The proceeding is a research paper investigating whether Ractopamine Hydrochloride (RAC) has a consequence on performance and carcass traits on slaughter animals. The paper elaborates basics of RAC as well as other related supplements, and their effect so slaughter cattle. The effects of the supplement on carcass characteristics, as well as, meat quality are detailed. It is asserted that the most prestigious place where this supplement act includes round, knuckle and tenderloin.

The consequences of RAC on the six paramount muscles are outlined in this research paper. These muscles include adductor (ADD), grasilis (GRA) as well as longissimus lumborum (LL). The other three include semimembranosus (SM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) though other muscles are also covered in the text. It is realized that this supplement has hypertrophic measures on the physique of cull stock.

The effects on fiber disparity are also outlined, together with how the supplement acts on both sexes, male and female. It is asserted that RAC impacts the performance and the dead body traits of the food animals. There is no single conclusion on the effects of RAC on the outlined parameters, and further research is proposed to attain a precise conclusion. Enhancement using RAC is linked to improved performance parameters like increased ADG and decreased G: F; however, these variations in the presentation usually render restrained enhancement in carcass traits.

Introduction

The escalating global population has exerted pressure on the few resources, including beef. There has been a sound need for lean animal protein at the consumer point, and this has prompted the livestock industry to device new techniques to meet customer requirements. Researchers have developed grass compounds, beta-agonists that have reorganized consequences on the nutrition value of the meat. This group of compounds, agonists, applies their outcomes on some livestock by augmenting the tempo of lipolysis and conversely diminishing the speed of lipogenesis in the fatty layers.

It is asserted that clusters of adrenergic like cimateral trims down the fat composition of the carcass; consequently, it amplifies the muscle accumulation in poultry, swine and other-food animals like sheep. Even though, RAC has been appraised to be condensing adipose bandanna dumping in the swine, it has not been fully evaluated in beef cattle. RAC is a class of beta- agonist associated with the improvement of performance and impacts the carcass characteristics in varied groups of farm animals. This supplement does this through amplified protein production. Another supplement, Zilpaterol-hydrochloride, is a two-beta-agonist which acts through the improved protein fusion, as well as, degradation1.

RAC

It is understood that β-agonist, a form of RAC, was the foremost to be accredited by the department of food and drug regulation in the United States. It was introduced in the market in 2003 as a concluding diet for slaughter animals, so as to realize improved yields2. It is noted that RAC has become a serious concern in animal health, as well as, nutrition. It is imperative to emphasize that RAC is a minute complex, which attaches to β-adrenergic receptors of slaughter cattle’s carcass. This compound is known of taking energy found on fatty areas; consequently it redirects them to advance the augmentation of muscle filament breadth.

Furthermore, it promotes the enlargement of carcass protein in the ham and abdomen, as well as, shoulder. Specialists have discovered that RAC is associated with the increase warm carcass mass: furthermore it eases dressing during slaughtering. This compound can also lessen the duration of carcass in the shelves. It is recommended for mass and compactness improvement when provided at 28 to 42 day of the ultimate phase. The development response of RAC has been observed in myriads of species; additionally, it has been endorsed for use in pig family.

Effects of RAC on Performance and Carcass Traits

Farmers have used RAC to improve the yield of their livestock, especially the beef breeds. The compound has been tested if it has effect on carcass characteristics, muscle filament morphometrics, as well as, entire muscle yield. It is noted that RAC is fed to steers, 28 days prior to harvest at a dose of 200mg hd/d (RAC-200).

Inclusion of the compound has both live and remains characteristics. It adds to average daily gain (ADG), as well as, the ratio of grain fed (G: F) by a high percentage of about 20%. Other known results of RAC include a rise in HCW, dressing proportion and the ribeye regions; however, there are always insignificant changes in the 12th rib fat content. The question producers have in mind is whether the supplement has effect on fat placement. Previous researches reveal that the supplement does not affect the head and hide, as well as, foot and pluck.

Consequently, it has little or no effect on other muscles other than longissimus dorsi. It has been indicated that giving this supplement for the last 28 days has negligible effect on carcass, muscle strand and general characteristics of the muscles. A thorough scrutiny of the six muscles using visual panel reveals that RAC has negligible effects on the lean beef and fat the color3.

It is crucial to assert that other strains of ractopamine like ractopamine hydro chloride (Optaflexx) also may pose some effect on slaughter animals. It is understood that Optaflexx has no effect on both dry matter intake, a swell as, ADG. However, Optaflexx has the tendency of improving the grain fed ratio in heifers feeding on this supplement, 28 days before slaughter. There have been some contrasting results in the previous researches that Optaflexx has no effect on carcass weighing properties4. It is further asserted that there is no improvement in lean tissue buildup, in heifers fed on this supplement.

Consequently, the enhancer has no effect on fat bulkiness, as well as, marbling characteristics. This suggests that Optaflexx has insignificant capacity to modify lipid deposition in the slaughter cattle. Even though, steers fed to this supplement do not show any difference regarding yield and value ranking they tend to have diminished marbling abilities. Feeding of ractopamine is associated with elevated meat toughness, which is attributed to diminished proteolysis that occurs after slaughter. Steers fed to ractopamine tend to have significantly higher shear power than those not fed to this supplement5. It is; therefore, placed that animals feeding on Optaflexx gain some hankie and experience alteration in meat gentleness.

Muscle Enhancement

Livestock producers have been concerned with the effect of the ractopamine-hydrochloride on various parameters of carcass traits. Such variables include the pH, color, as well as, the sensory characteristics and shearing abilities of the meat. It is imperative to note that RAC has no or insignificant effect on these carcass traits. It is further asserted that enhancement may vary the color and raise pH. Elevated pH is attributed to the high levels of brine take up through enhancement6. There is a possibility that cattle put on supplement are likely to have a deviation from the normal color.

Dark color due to enhancement is a serious concern if the carcass is for retail purposes. This is definite since consumers may discriminate against such carcass; therefore, a lot should be done to produce bright color while upholding the worthiness of the extras. Supplement also advances the sensory characteristics like succulence and tenderness. It should be understood that the method of enhancement is crucial in determining the outcome of the response to RAC. One can use marination or spike-pumped method, which produces excellent results. Improvement in tenderness, as well as juiciness, is always attributed to high levels of enhancement, together with, the use of multi-needle infuser.

Effects of RAC on six muscles of slaughter animal

It is indicated that feeding RAC to cattle some days before slaughter has no effect on some muscles. No effect is realized on the longissimus muscle area after feeding the cattle with RAC 28 days before harvesting7. There have been concerns whether the supplement can affect the weight and dimensions of the muscles. Researches reveal that RAC has no significant effect on the weight and dimensions of the muscles when postmortem analysis is done8.

However, it is understood that the supplement has effect on the GRA, as well as, LL since it lengthens the width of these muscles. It is further asserted that RAC has the tendencies of darkening the color of the muscles. The mostly affected muscles include RF and semimembranosus since they display excessive surface discoloration. Slaughter cattle that feed on RAC usually have improved shear capability of the carcass. It is imperative to note that ZH has augmented effect on the carcass compared to RAC since it has superior shear strength regardless of the period of postmortem. The use of HZ as a supplement has elevated effects on protein as well as fat breakdown compared to RAC.

There has been a concern whether the supplement, RAC, has effect on the allocation of the six muscles, as well as their shelf-life. These muscles include adductor and grasilis as well as longissimus lumborum. The other three include SM, VL and rectus femoris. These crucial muscles are found in such areas like the round, knuckle and loin. It is vital to note that the supplement has no significant effect on the cross-sectional area of the six muscles, and this is usually common in both type I and II muscles.

However, there is a significant change in the fiber modification, especially in the VL and GRA9. Furthermore, it shifts all the fibers not including SM muscle. It is further understood that RAC has no cause on the nitric oxide reactions of the muscles excluding the LL. As stated earlier, RAC is associated with the reduction of shelf-life of the carcass. This reduction is attributed to the physiological effects of RAC. Such reaction occurs during supplementation; consequently, it is associated with the shift en route for type II muscles10.

Hypertrophic action of RAC on Cull Cows

It has been realized that this supplement, ractopamine-hydrochloride, has hypertrophic actions on the muscles of cull cows. The compound has always shown an enlargement in type I and II muscles, which does not decode an equivalent boost in ribeye quarters. It is crucial to note that reactions to RAC vary depending on the concentration of the supplement. Supplementing RAC at the rate of 100mg per head per day (RAC-100) usually alters the composition of the fibers11. Consequently, RAC-200 has a significant increase in the proportion of type II fibers in the SM, LM and VL, but the highest shift is apprehended in SM as opposed to the other two fibers.

Furthermore, RAC-200 is known to be escalating the breadth and cross-section area of the type I fibers contained by the VL. Cull cows feeding on RAC-100 show an addition in the measurements of Infraspinatus (INF). It is indispensable to note that RAC-200 has no significant effect on the myonuclear domain within the LM. Few counts of muonuclei are present in the LM and VL when cull cows are fed RAC-200, but this change is not experienced in the IFN and SM. Any concentration of ractopamine has no effect on the beta-adrenergic receptors and mRNA in the LM. In contrast to this, RAC-100 has effect on the receptors and mRNA in the SM.

It is indicated that difference in reactions to RAC is attributed to other parameters like the age, as well as sex of the animal. Supplementation with RAC should translate to large ribeye area when a recommended dose is applied. Variation in muscle as a response to RAC can be explained by fiber-type changes in the INF. An accelerated increase in the SM fiber is attributed to a reduction in myosin heavy chain gene expression of genetic materials. The dichotomy of the superior filaments with MayHC mRNA is habitually ascribed to diminution of protein destruction. This supplement is prone to stimulating muscle fiber growth, and this is attributed to a change in protein manufacturing or degradation.

Ractopamine Effect across Cattle Sex

There has been a concern whether RAC works the same in both cattle sexes. Furthermore, it is imperative to understand the effect of ractopamine on serum metabolites and expression of skeletal hereditary material. It is noted that heifers feeding on RAC usually consume lesser dry matter than those excluded from supplement. They consume 16% of dry matter less than other heifers not feeding on RAC. Steers feeding on ractopamine do not show any variation in the utilization of DM12.

Ractopamine does not affect the body weight of the heifers, as well as, the steers. However, steers usually show rise in ADG grain to feed ratio. It is imperative to note that sex of the animal plays a vital role in the determination of metabolites when they feed on RAC. Steers usually have a superior glucose focus than heifers when they consume the same quantities of supplement. This is in opposition to the plasma urea, which is higher in heifers than steers. The concentration of serum insulin does not depend on sex of the cattle in the feedlot.

The sex of the animal influences how RAC affects the genetic expressions, but this depends on the muscles. Steers normally demonstrate an advanced insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the butterfat than heifers. Furthermore, steers show high tendencies of greater mRNA expression in the LM than the heifers. However, sex has no effect on the mRNA expression of the calpastatin13. Consequently, the sex of the animal does not affect the genes in the LM. It is worth noting that feeding RAC tend to change the composition of muscle fiber in BF. Even though, RAC creates some differences in physiological responses, in both sexes

Effects of RAC on postmortem aging and biological type

It is noted that the effect of RAC varies across the breeds of cattle, as well as, the postmortem aging of the animal. The use of RAC as a supplement usually lowers the LM tenderness of some breeds as British and Continental crossbred. It is further noted that the effect of ractopamine is supplementary manifested in steaks from Brahman crossbred than their Continental counterparts.

Effects of the RAC regarding shear force depend on the period of stay of the carcass after slaughter. This is normally evident among the steer where postmortem aging progresses shear vigor14. Some studies have shown that RAC has the tendencies of decreasing carcass tenderness. This is ascribed to rise in postmortem calpastatin action, as well as, a budge in the proportion, in muscle fiber. Decreased tenderness can also be attributed to amplified muscle fiber breadth.

Conclusion

The use of ractopamine-hydrochloride poses mixed reactions to livestock producers. Enough information regarding effects of RAC lack; furthermore, the existing data gives contradicting conclusions. It is imperative to assert that the effect of RAC has been explored, to some extent, in young cattle as opposed to old stock. In general, the use of RAC has shown improved performance and carcass traits in relation to average daily gain and grain fed ratio.

In contrary, these advantages do not translate into significant carcass traits. The beef industries should continue to modify practices to improve efficiency resulting from the development and implementation of dietary additives to improve feedlot performance. Further research is; therefore, proposed to attain a precise conclusion on the effect of RAC on slaughter cattle. More so, a lot should be investigated on its effect on older animals.

Bibliography

Holmer, Saunemin F. and others, eds. “Realimentation of cull beef cows. II. Meat quality of muscles from the chuck, loin and round in Response to diet and enhancement.” Journal of muscle foods 20 (2009): 307-324.

Gonzalez, Martinez J. and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers.” Journal of animal science 87 (2009): 1764-1771.

Gonzalez, Martinez J. and others, eds. “Differential response of cull cow muscles to the hypertrophic actions of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride.” Journal of animal science 86 (2008): 3568-3574.

Gonzalez, Martinez J. and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine–HCl supplementation for 28 days on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and whole muscle yields of six distinct muscles of the loin and round” Journal of meet science 85 (2003): 379–384.

Gruber, Sabine L. and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine supplementation and postmortem aging on longissimus muscle palatability of beef steers differing in biological type.” Journal of animal science 86 (2008): 205-2010.

Quinn, Martin J. and others, eds. “The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers.” Journal of animal science 86(2008): 902-908.

Scramlin, Stacy L. and others, eds. “Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and Zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers.” Journal of animal science 88 (2010):1823–1829.

Walker, Don K. and others, eds. “Effects of ractopamine and sex on serum metabolites and skeletal in muscle gene expression finishing steers and heifers.” Journal of animal science 88 (2010): 1349-1357.

Footnotes

  1. Stacy L. Scramlin, and others, eds. “Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride andZilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers.” Journal of animal science 88 (2010):1823–1829.
  2. Sabine L. Gruber, and others, eds. “effects of ractopamine supplementation and postmortem aging on longissimus muscle palatability of beef steers differing in biological type.” Journal of animal science 86 (2008): 205 2010.
  3. Martinez J. Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers.” Journal of animal science 87 (2009): 1764 1771.
  4. Martin J. Quinn, and others, eds. “The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers.” Journal of animal science 86(2008): 902-908.
  5. Martin J. Quinn, and others, eds. “The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers.” Journal of animal science 86(2008):902-908.
  6. Saunemin F. Holmer, and others, eds. “Realimentation of cull beef cows. II. Meat quality of muscles from the chuck, loin and round in Response to diet and enhancement.” Journal of muscle foods 20 (2009): 307-324.
  7. Martinez J. Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine–HCl supplementation for 28 days on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and whole muscle yields of six distinct muscles of the loin and round.” Journal of meet science 85 (2003): 379–384.
  8. Martinez J. Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine–HCl supplementation for 28 days on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and whole muscle yields of six distinct muscles of the loin and round.” Journal of meet science 85 (2003): 379–384.
  9. Martinez J Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber typedistribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers.” Journal of animal science 87 (2009): 1764-1771.
  10. Martinez J. Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers.” Journal of animal science 87 (2009): 1764-1771.
  11. Martinez J. Gonzalez, and others, eds. “Differential response of cull cow muscles to the hypertrophic actions of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride.” Journal of animal science 86 (2008): 3568-3574.
  12. Don K. Walker, and others, eds. “Effects of ractopamine and sex on serum metabolites and skeletal muscle gene expression in finishing steers and heifers.” Journal of animal science 88 (2010): 1349-1357.
  13. Don K. Walker, and others, eds. “Effects of ractopamine and sex on serum metabolites and skeletal muscle gene expression in finishing steers and heifers.” Journal of animal science 88 (2010): 1349-1357.
  14. Sabine L. Gruber, and others, eds. “effects of ractopamine supplementation and postmortem aging on longissimus muscle palatability of beef steers differing in biological type.” Journal of animal science 86 (2008): 205-2010.
This research paper on Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

Need a custom Research Paper sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

301 certified writers online

GET WRITING HELP
Cite This paper

Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, June 25). Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/ractopamine-hydrochloride-effect-on-slaughter-cattle/

Work Cited

"Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle." IvyPanda, 25 June 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/ractopamine-hydrochloride-effect-on-slaughter-cattle/.

1. IvyPanda. "Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle." June 25, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ractopamine-hydrochloride-effect-on-slaughter-cattle/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle." June 25, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ractopamine-hydrochloride-effect-on-slaughter-cattle/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle." June 25, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ractopamine-hydrochloride-effect-on-slaughter-cattle/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Ractopamine Hydrochloride Effect on Slaughter Cattle'. 25 June.

More related papers