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Salmonellosis is one of the most dangerous infections which exists in the modern world. Many people (especially infants and children) suffer from this infection every year. Eggs are the sources for the infection. Layer-hen breeding farms are created with the purpose to increase the level of eggs and fowl on the markets.
At the same time, the violation of different norms, regulations and laws may be harmful not only to the industry but to the whole society. The infection is identified after 4-7 hours of bad products consumption, and may be led to hospitalization.
The research shows that acute salmonellosis is a reason for death of 400 people every year (“Salmonella”). The main focus of the discussion is a risk assessment of Salmonella hazards on the layer-hen breeding farms from different perspectives, managers, regulatory agents and scientists.
Industry Manager’s Brief
The highest risk the managers may wait for is the occurrence of salmonella on the whole farm, when all the products are infected. The hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) are created with the purpose to help managers conduct that control.
The managers on the layer-hen breeding farms should conduct the following actions on the basis of HACCP: analyze hazards; identify critical control points; provide some preventive actions; monitor critical control points’ correct some procedures, if necessary; test the manufacturing to make sure it works properly and organize a work in such a way that the HACCP documentary is record-kept effectively (Swanger).
On the basis of the mentioned steps, the managers of the layer-hen breeding farms should test for salmonella poultry and identify whether the required norms are met, check whether the current food safety regulations are appropriate, highlight the risk, appoint those who are going to be responsible for monitoring the jeopardy, reduce it in case of occurring, and provide some changes to the manufacturing process if necessary.
The critical control points.
Managers should know that if Salmonella enterica is found in the waste areas of the farm, the whole area should be disinfected as well as the checking actions should be provided on the farm. The instances of Salmonella Enteritidis in trash show that problem has affected the whole production chain.
The isolation of the trash from the production may only the reduce problem rate, not eliminate it (Davies, Liebana and Breslin 234). The manager of the farm is legally responsible for the products he/she supplies the markets with, so he/she is responsible for the food safety.
Following the rules of production, managers still cannot protect their products from hazards of infection.
Still, there are three key legal obligations managers should provide to assure product safety, “assurance programs on farms, the rapid and sustained refrigeration of eggs from farm to consumer, and the education of consumers and food workers about the risks associated with pooling, handling, and consuming raw or undercooked eggs” (Braden 516).
To make the reduction of salmonellosis cases effective and productive, the managers should listen to the information provided by scientists and regulatory agencies. These two categories of institutions work on the reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis. Scientists work on the identification of the source of the problem.
The integration of the discoveries they make into manufacturing may save many layer-hen breeding farms from spending money on the elimination of the problem. The pieces of advice provided by the regulatory agencies should be used by managers as they give hints on how to protect the production chain from microbiological risk.
Thus, it should be stated that the managers on the layer-hen breeding farms are responsible for both the production chain and the elimination of the hazards which may occur. Scientists and regulatory advisers are people who are aimed at helping the managers to reduce, if not to eliminate absolutely, the instances of Salmonella Enteritidis in the manufacturing.
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|Low||Influence of hen age||Infection of flock||Infection from wild species|
|Medium||Waste infection on the farm||Inappropriate food keeping||Health problems dues to heredity|
|High||Environment contamination||Human carelessness (hygiene)||Low time of cooking|
Table of risk management for the reasons of salmonella occurrence in eggs
If one wants to follow the critical control points when the food is considered to be safety and the salmonella hazards are eliminated, the following table should be considered (Food Safety and Inspection Service 710).
Table. Pasteurization requirements 1
Regulatory Adviser’s Brief
Dwelling upon the appropriate level of protection for the main microbiological risk connected with the Salmonella Enteritidis, it should be mentioned that it is a level of the protection considered to be safe and appropriate for inhabitants of the country.
Referencing to the case, both people and chickens should be protected. The main purpose of the regulatory brief is to check whether food safety objectives meet an appropriate level of protection, define whether there is an effective high priority management intervention available to manage the particular microbiological risk and evaluate the plan of the industry management.
Getting down to identification of the appropriate level of protection, it should be mentioned that there are two main institutions which should work in this direction, managers of the farms and people themselves. Managers are responsible for the products they create, so on the final stage of production they should pack the product and deliver it in such a way that no any bacteria can reach it.
It should be remembered that desiccation is not a threat for Salmonella enterica. Furthermore, cleaning and disinfection on the regular basis are not harmful for this infection as well. Thus, to approach the necessary level of the protection from Salmonella enteric on the microbiological level, the farmers and managers should conduct some additional control devoted to these specific bacteria.
There is a risk that infected parents will contaminate other generations. The level of protection should be really high as the ability of the bacteria to resist to different outside influences sometimes frustrates (Pedersen, Olsen and Bisgaard 421).
To support the idea of food safety protection, the regulation was created to monitor the protection actions in the relation to the Salmonella Enteritidis. Regulation EC 1177/2003 states, (1) Salmonella should not be controlled by antimicrobials, and (2) mandatory vaccination should be provided in the countries where the infection spread is more than 10%.
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1168/2006 identifies the terms for testing flocks in rear, (1) on the first day (the day of the chicken delivery from the hatchery) and (2) two weeks prior to entering laying phase (Carrique-Mas and Davies 2).
Furthermore, there are a lot of different agencies which follow the process and can influence it by means of different regulations. These agencies are state, local, and federal health departments (“PulseNet”).
The main objective of food safety regulation is to assure the citizens of the country that the products they consume are clean and safe. At the same time, it is impossible to protect people if they do not follow some specific rules for personal maintenance. Appropriate hygiene and food keeping in accordance with the norms are the main rules for food safety.
So authors say that “reduction of intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica during the grow-out period is crucial to provide safer eggs, minimize economic losses, and reduce the spread of human salmonellosis” (Kassaify and Mine 753).
It is possible to follow all the regulations mentioned above. Furthermore, it is even profitable for the manager, as in case of violation of the norms and the infection incidents occurrence, high fines should be set on him/her.
Scientific Advisor’s Brief
The main purpose of this brief is to provide the reader with the scientific hazard characteristics of the Salmonella enterica occurrence in eggs and other items produced on layer-hen breeding farms. Referencing to the risk management table, the following information may be provided. Wildlife species influence the rate of poultry infected with Salmonella enterica.
The molecular research conducted in the sphere shows that farms should be protected from rats, flies, litter, foxes and some other wild species (Liebana, et al 1028). The hazard to infection widespread may be caused by the age of the hen.
Scientists proved that the age influences the rate of Salmonella introduction via egg shell penetration (Messens, Grijspeerdt, and Herman 694). The understanding of this penetration and age influence may improve the quality of antivirus activities provided by managers and regulators.
It goes without saying that the ovaries and the oviducts are the main places for bacteria colonization. Thus, eggs are infected and it is impossible to identify which one is safe and which one is not. The vaccination is one of the best ways to reduce the hazard of the problem. The research proved that inoculations may be helpful if provided in time and if the necessary prescriptions were followed (Withanage 586).
It is possible to state that egg-packaging plants are also responsible for the contamination of the products. The failure to follow some specific norms of storage and packing is a great hazard to the products from the point of view of Salmonella appearance.
Davies, Liebana and Breslin also stated that wastes may be extremely dangerous if there are Salmonella bacteria there. The cleaning should be provided not only of the trash that was considered, but of the whole poultry on the farm (234).
The hazard may lie in human carelessness and imprudence. Dirty hands, raw products and uncooked dishes are the sources for Salmonella occurrence (Braden 516). There are specific norms which should be followed in relation to temperature and time of cooking. A failure to follow those norms may be a great hazard for consumers. The combination of all those hazards is dangerous for human life.
The high concentration of salmonella bacteria in the may also lead to the health problems. The infection is identified after 4-7 hours of bad products consumption, and may be led to hospitalization. The research shows that acute salmonellosis is a reason for death of 400 people every year (“Salmonella”).
Thus, coming out of the information mentioned above it may be stated that the main hazard for Salmonella is the violation of different norms and regulations.
If the farm follows all the regulations, makes the cleaning and disinfection operations in time and uses hazard analysis and critical control points for checking the bacteria presence in the products, it may be sure that all the actions are provided to reduce the possibility of infection occurrence. In addition, the scientific pieces of advice should be considered.
They mostly search for the sources of Salmonella and try to warn the managers on the layer-hen breeding farms against the threads. If the industry managers follow those pieces of advice it may reduce the costs on cleaning and inoculations in the future. Furthermore, the outbreaks of the salmonellosis in the society may be reduced to minimum, if not absolutely eliminated.
Braden, Christopher R. “Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis and Eggs: A National Epidemic in the United States.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 43.4 (2006): 512-517. Print.
Carrique-Mas, Juan J. and Rhodri H. Davies. “Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial layer flocks in Europe: Legislative background, on farm sampling and main challenges.” Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 10.1 (2008): 1-9. Print.
Davies, Robert, Liebana, Ernesto, and Mark Breslin. “Investigation of the distribution and control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT6 in layer breeding and egg production.” Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A 32.3 (2003): 225-237. Print.
“Food Safety and Inspection Service, Department Of Agriculture.” 9 CFR – Code of Federal Regulations. Web.
Kassaify, Z. G. and Y. Mine. “Effect of Food Protein Supplements on Salmonella enteritidis Infection and Prevention in Laying Hens.” Poultry Science 83 (2004): 753–760. Print.
Liebana, E, et al. “Molecular fingerprinting evidence of the contribution of wildlife vectors in the maintenance of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in layer farms.” Journal of Applied Microbiology 94.6 (2003): 1024-1029. Print.
Messens, W., Grijspeerdt, K., and L. Herman. “Eggshell characteristics and penetration by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis through the production period of a layer flock.” British Poultry Science 46.6 (2005): 694-700. Print.
Pedersen, Tina Broennum, Olsen, John Elmerdahl, and Magne Bisgaard. “Persistence of Salmonella Senftenberg in poultry production environments and investigation of its resistance to desiccation.” Avian Pathology 37.4 (2008): 421-427. Print.
“PulseNet.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 28 Apr. 2009. Web.
“Salmonella.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 27 Sept. 2010. Web.
Swanger, Nancy “HACCP (hazard analysis of critical control points).” International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management. 2005. Web.
Withanage, G. S. K., et al. “Increased lymphocyte subpopulations and macrophages in the ovaries and oviducts of laying hens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.” Avian Pathology 32.6 (2003): 583-590. Print.