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Schizophrenia Drugs’ Mechanism of Action Essay (Critical Writing)


Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric diagnosis with a variety of symptoms that requires treatment by professionals. Furthermore, it is the most common among psychotic disorders, thus discussing effective methods of treatment for each case is crucial (Patel, Cherian, Gohil, & Atkinson, 2014) Patient M. Y. experiences severe symptoms; the current treatment plan includes Haloperidol, Banophen, and Ibuprofen.

Additionally, thirty days in the mental health establishment are part of the intervention. However, other options can be discussed to ensure that M. Y. is receiving the most effective help for his diagnosis. According to Culig and Belzung (2016), the beginning of drug development for the condition dates back to 1952. Since then, more than 50 medication options have been created and utilized by physiatrists. The variety of drugs that can be used raises a question of which one is the most effective, according to current studies.

The mechanism of action that the majority of schizophrenia drugs utilize is similar. It is based on “act on the dopamine D2 receptor” (Culig & Belzung, 2016, p. 6). One of the medication options, clozapine, is known as a drug that can be helpful with conditions that are resistant to other treatments. Thus, clozapine can be used by M. Y. in case the initial treatment does not lead to the improvement of a patient’s condition.

Theories regarding the causes of schizophrenia can give an insight about the appropriate medication. Patel et al. (2014) state that the condition can be caused by “either an excess or a deficiency of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate” or “aspartate, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as part of the neurochemical imbalance” (p. 638). Despite these findings, there is no consensus on why people develop schizophrenia.

Antipsychotic agents are essential for most cases of schizophrenia. Culig and Belzung (2016) state that first-line treatment should be provided by any of the agents except for clozapine. Additionally, it is recommended to avoid prescribing first-generation antipsychotic agents, due to possible side effects. Thus, Haloperidol is not recommended, as it is a first generation medication. In the case of M. Y. is can be useful to prescribe a second-generation antipsychotic, and if it proves to be ineffective, clozapine can be used. Thus, there is no unified opinion on the most effective treatment for schizophrenia today, different options can be utilized. However, it is proven that the first-generation antipsychotic can endanger a patient’s life.

M. Y. has been in prison for several years; thus, it is essential to identify the factors that influence a psychiatric diagnosis of the imprisoned. Senior et al. (2013) state that prisoners are more likely to have a mental condition than the general population. Furthermore, once they return to the social setting, they often experience difficulties due to instability, unemployment, and social exclusion. The prevalence of severe mental health disorders (including schizophrenia) in prisoners was 23%. (Senior et al., 2013). Although the study does not explain why these disorders occur, it emphasizes the risks that a person has in regards to mental health.

Interventions in prisons can be helpful in managing schizophrenia symptoms. A study by Qiu et al. (2017) has shown that art therapy helps decrease negative psychiatric symptoms that inmates had been experiencing. Thus, M. Y.’s condition may have been intensified due to the environment of the prison and lack of proper treatments. Art therapy can be utilized in addition to medications to improve the patient’s condition.

References

Culig, L., & Belzung, C. (2016). Modeling affective symptoms of schizophrenia. Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, 23, 85-102. Web.

Patel, K. K., Cherian, J., Gohil, K., & Atkinson, D. (2014). Schizophrenia: Overview and treatment options. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(9), 638-645.

Senior, J., Birmingham, L., Harty, M. A., Hassan L., Hayes, A. J., Kendall, K., … Shaw, J. (2013). Identification and management of prisoners with severe psychiatric illness by specialist mental health services. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1511-1520. Web.

Qiu, H. Z., Ye, Z. J., Liang, M. Z., Huang, Y. Q., Liu, W., & Lu, Z. D. (2017). Effect of an art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia (GBTS) on prison inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China — A randomized, longitudinal, and controlled trial. Clinical Phycology & Psychotherapy, 24(5), 1069-1078. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2021, January 7). Schizophrenia Drugs' Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/schizophrenia-drugs-mechanism-of-action/

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