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Sexual Harassment Types Research Paper

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Updated: Oct 22nd, 2020

Despite its unlawful nature, sexual harassment can be observed in any workplace, creating barriers and problems for victims of offenses. Two types of prohibited behavior are quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment. Five sources have been selected to research these two types of sexual harassment in the workplace, and they need to be discussed in detail with the focus on their reliability and authenticity.

The first source to consider is the chapter written by Farris et al. (2015) that is included in Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the US Military by Morral, Gore, and Schell. In this chapter, the authors discussed sexual harassment in the context of gender discrimination concerning the experiences of those people who work in the US military forces. According to the authors, a hostile work environment is characterized by demonstrating and using inappropriate sexual gestures, behaviors, and language that can be offensive to colleagues. An environment is characterized as hostile when such inappropriate behaviors are persistent and active or severe. The researchers state that, in the US military forces, one out of eight women usually faces such type of sexual harassment (Farris et al., 2015). Quid pro quo is a type of harassment that includes forcing sexual contact by a person who has power in an organization. Clear evidence should be presented to categorize sexual harassment as a quid pro quo. This printed source is reliable and credible because the information provided in the chapter is based on surveys and study data.

The second source is electronic, and it is a copy of Keeney and Nash’s (2015) study published online. The researchers conducted a descriptive study on sexual harassment observed in the workplace and described two types of unlawful behavior in detail. Analyzing cases in which quid pro quo harassment is observed, they state that this behavior includes “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature” (as cited in Keeney & Nash, 2015, p. 3). Furthermore, the researchers proposed the legal definition of a hostile work environment as harassment that “has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment” (as cited in Keeney & Nash, 2015, p. 4). The content of this source can be discussed as reliable and authentic as the researchers referred to legal sources in their paper to support their arguments.

The third source is the book edited by Richards and Marcum (2014). This book includes a detailed analysis of sexual victimization not only in the workplace but also in society. Quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment are defined and described in this book concerning particular cases and situations in which they can be noticed and reported. In the conclusion, Richards and Marcum (2014) stated that these types of sexual harassment are typical of many environments in the United States despite their illegal character, and they are signs of discrimination and inequality in society. This source is reliable and based on scholarly research on the topic.

The fourth source is the article by Salman, Abdullah, and Saleem (2016) that is available online. In their article, the authors described sexual harassment in the workplace with the focus on its effects on the turnover intentions of victims of such behaviors. Quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment were also examined in detail. According to Salman et al. (2016), quid pro quo harassment can directly influence employees’ turnover intentions because “failure to comply with harasser’s requests or offers causes an adverse impact on employment procedures such as promotion, compensation and benefits, performance appraisals, and other conditions” (p. 89). Furthermore, when hostile environment harassment is observed, “victims’ response to stop sexual harassment behaviors will adversely affect the conduct of their job” (Salman et al., 2016, p. 90). The source includes the reliable and authentic content based on the findings of the study conducted in the educational sector.

The fifth source is located on the website of the U.S. Department of Labor. The article describes two types of sexual harassment that can be reported in the workplace. This source is important to be researched because it provides clear examples of behaviors and activities that allow for differentiating these two types of sexual harassment. Thus, possible variants of the offensive behavior are discussed in the article with the focus on aspects that make this behavior unlawful (U.S. Department of Labor, n.d.). The source is reliable, and the information is valid as it is provided by the U.S. Department of Labor on its official website.

The review of the selected sources indicates that each of them is important to provide useful information regarding types of sexual harassment. The discussed sources are valid, and their authenticity is proved. Therefore, they can be successfully used to support the project on quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment.


Farris, C., Jaycox, L. H., Schell, T. L., Street, A. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Tanielian, T. (2015). Sexual harassment and gender discrimination findings: Active component. In A. R. Morral, K. L. Gore & T. L. Schell (Eds.), Sexual assault and sexual harassment in the US military (pp. 31-54). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Keeney, M. G., & Nash, K. L. (2015). Web.

Richards, T. N., & Marcum, C. D. (Eds.). (2014). Sexual victimization: Then and now. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.

Salman, M., Abdullah, F., & Saleem, A. (2016). Business & Economic Review, 8(1), 87-102. Web.

U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). What do I need to know about … workplace harassment. Web.

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