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Shoulder Joint Replacement Types and Statistics Term Paper


Shoulder joint replacement history

Shoulder joint replacement involves removing and replacing damaged parts of the shoulder with a prosthesis (artificial components). The history of shoulder joint replacement or surgery takes us back to the 1950s. It was first performed in the United States of America. There are several types of shoulder joint management. The most recommended type is total shoulder replacement. Researches indicate that total shoulder replacement, also known as shoulder arthroplasty, can last up to a lifetime when well managed. Over the years, this process has gained popularity and is now used in treating many other painful conditions related to the shoulder. For instance, it is used to provide a remedy to the different types of arthritis. Also, approximately 53,000 persons in the United States go for shoulder joint replacement annually. This treatment is preferable in situations where nonsurgical treatments such as medications are not possible, or when activity changes are not of any help.

Some of the types of shoulder joint replacement include Stemmed Hemiarthroplasty, Total Shoulder Replacement (Arthroplasty), Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty, and Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement. Depending on the condition of the joint, physicians employ the most relevant type of shoulder joint replacement. For instance, when suffering from degenerative joint problems or arthritic conditions that cause discomfort around your shoulder joints, Total Shoulder Replacement (Arthroplasty) is the best alternative of restoring the shoulder.

Anatomy of the shoulder joint replacement

A shoulder of a human being is made up of 3 bones. These include the arm bone, the shoulder blade, and the collarbone. They are also referred to as the humerus, the scapula, and the clavicle respectively. The articular cartilage protects the bones, making them move easily (flexible). The synovial membrane provides a fluid that lubricates the cartilage to make the shoulder move easily in all directions. This is because it stops friction in the human shoulder. A human shoulder is categorized as a ball and socket joint that is referred to as the glenoid. In shoulder joint replacement, physicians either replace the head of the humerus bone or replace both the humerus bone (ball) and the glenoid (socket). Some tendons and muscles surround a shoulder. They provide it with stability and support. All these structures play a significant role in ensuring that a shoulder rotates using a great range of motion compared to any other joint in human beings.

Types of replacement in details

As was mentioned earlier, there are different types of shoulder joint replacement. They include Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty, Total Shoulder Replacement (Arthroplasty), Stemmed Hemiarthroplasty, and Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement. The application of these types of shoulder joint replacement is determined by the condition of the shoulder.

Total Shoulder Replacement (Arthroplasty) (TSA)

This is a medical procedure that has become popular due to its high success rate compared to traditional surgery procedures (“Prosthetic shoulder joint” par. 2). This treatment is highly effective in treating patients with stiffness resulting from various disorders of the shoulder. The fact that TSA is minimally invasive means that patients can gain from this progressive and less costly procedure. Whether you are suffering from degenerative joint problems or arthritic conditions that are causing you discomfort around your shoulder joints, TSA could be the best alternative of restoring the shoulder. The fundamental objective of total shoulder replacement is to help relieve pain, restore motion, power and helping a patient to restore to a prior condition (Iannotti and Williams 55). Therefore, while TSA has been viewed as complex, the results have shown that the outcome is most desirable as patients who undergo TSA surgery can return to normalcy a few months after a successful surgery. This means that one can return to his or her sporting activity such as golf, swimming, or tennis or yoga exercises.

Stemmed Hemiarthroplasty

This is a procedure whereby a surgeon replaces the ball only, with a metal ball and stem. This component is similar to the one used in Total Shoulder Joint Replacement. This procedure is recommended by surgeons in conditions such as arthritis, and to people with weak glenoid bones. Compared to Total Shoulder Replacement, this type of shoulder joint replacement is not effective in relieving pain.

Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty

This procedure has a bone preserving advantage, and hence provides people with arthritis with an alternative to other shoulder replacements. It is effective because it avoids risks of component wear. It also avoids loosening that sometimes occurs in Total Shoulder replacement. Resurfacing hemiarthroplasty can be converted easily to the latter when a need arises because of its conservative nature. Unlike the other procedures, resurfacing hemiarthroplasty preserves bones.

Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement

This type of shoulder joint replacement is recommended by surgeons when an individual has completely torn rotator cuffs whose arms are weak. Total Shoulder Replacement is not effective for such individuals because it can leave them with pain. It can also make them unable to lift their arms or side to side. This is severely debilitating. In Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement, a metal ball is connected with the shoulder bone. Surgeons then attach a plastic socket to the upper arm of the bone. This allows patients to use their deltoid muscles. It also helps them to avoid using the torn rotator cuff when lifting their hands.

What causes the shoulder joint to be replaced in details

Several causes attribute to shoulder joints being replaced. These include Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Joint Disease), Rheumatoid Arthritis, Post-traumatic Arthritis, Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy, Avascular Necrosis (Osteonecrosis), Severe Fractures, and Failed Previous Shoulder Replacement Surgery. A severe fracture is one of the causes that call for shoulder joint replacement. Failure to do it can deter the supply of blood to the bone pieces. Osteonecrosis is a painful condition that is caused by a lack of blood supply to bones. Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy brings changes in the shoulder, leading to arthritis. It also leads to joint cartilage destructions (Soslowsky 185). Arthritis contributes a lot to the need for shoulder replacement.

How is it diagnosed

A pre-surgery examination before a Shoulder Joint Anatomy is essential to help determine the most effective treatment that can heal the problem. Experts argue that a shoulder diagnosis or examination must be done carefully. The process entails different examination techniques such as visual exams, palpation, and x-rays (Wirth et al. 101). Doctors also perform special tests before recommending the best procedures. A CT scan is taken to help make further evaluations of the nature of injury, bone quality and the nature of the surrounding tissues such as the cuff tendon and the rotator (Craig par. 4).

Types of surgeries

A wise decision is made on the type of anesthesia to be used (Cole and Sekiya 91). For instance, regional anesthesia or general anesthesia is recommended in Total Shoulder Replacement (Arthroplasty).

What type of materials are used for implants

Metal balls and polyethylene sockets are used for implants (“Shoulder replacement FAQS”, par. 4). In a procedure involving a reverse shoulder, artificial implants are reversed. For instance, the doctor places a metallic ball on the plastic socket that is connected to the patient’s upper humerus bone (Bicknell 45). However, a surgeon may use prosthetic balls that have hooks. This may not require the surgeon to cement the bones.

Statistics about shoulder joint replacement (longevity, cost, age)

Statistics indicate that total shoulder replacement, also known as shoulder arthroplasty, can last up to a lifetime when well managed. However, studies have also shown that the outcome may last up to a minimum of 15 years (United States par. 1). When it comes to post-surgical recovery time, an average patient may take 6 months after surgery to recover from an invasive treatment. The cost of shoulder joint replacement includes many functions and cannot be of a standard figure. However, surgeon fees may be approximately $50,000-$60,000. This is likely to change depending on the experience of the surgeon, the state of technology, and the extent of the damage.

Works Cited

Bicknell, Ryan T. All-metal Glenoid Component Design in Shoulder Arthroplasty: An in Vitro Implant Stability Study. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. Print.

Cole, Brian J, and Jon K. Sekiya. Surgical Techniques of the Shoulder, Elbow, and Knee in Sports Medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008. Print.

Craig V. Edward, Hospital for Special Surgery 2007. Web.

Iannotti, Joseph P, and Gerald R. Williams. Disorders of the Shoulder: Diagnosis and Management. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. Print.

Prosthetic shoulder joint.” United States Patent 3694820 A. 1972. Web.

Team Medicine. 2013. Web.

Soslowsky, Louis J., et al. “Articular geometry of the glenohumeral joint.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 285(1992): 181-190. Print.

United States, United States Patent 6620197. 2004. Web.

Wirth, Michael, et al. “Radiologic, mechanical and histologic evaluation of 2 glenoid prosthesis designs in a canine model.” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 1(2001): 140-148. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2020, July 17). Shoulder Joint Replacement Types and Statistics. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/shoulder-joint-replacement-types-and-statistics/

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