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Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates Research Paper


Brief introduction

Having a human population of more than 2.5 million, Brooklyn is actually the most populous among New York City’s all five boroughs. Over 1 in 8 inhabitants of New York State stay in Brooklyn and in the event that considered solely, it is the 4th biggest urban center in the United States (Hamilton, Martin, & Ventura, 2010). Just like Queens, It is a complicated quilt of heaps of local neighborhoods, every single with its individual distinctive property inventory, organizations, neighborhood corporations, as well as localized lifestyle. And additionally similar to Queens, numerous Brooklyn communities have encountered key demographic adjustments in the course of the previous decades.

In Brooklyn, these kinds of adjustments are most frequently explained by the expression “gentrification.” This is typically described as a procedure concerned with the inflow of a middle-class or even well-off populace into typically working -class or even small -revenue region and the related displacement of reduced -revenue populations. Lots of individuals view gentrification as shift in the neighborhood’s “personality” the neighborhood organizations, the stores, the actual street lifestyle, as well as the numerous additional aspects which form the neighborhood economic system as well as way of life (Hamilton, Martin, & Ventura, 2010).

Southern Brooklyn is a location or amalgamated community within the New York City, covering parts of Cobble Hill, covered by Brooklyn Community Board 6, which usually consequently estimates the southern area 1 / 2 of the eighteenth century City of Brooklyn. The IND Culver Line serves Southern Brooklyn and also was formerly known as the Southern Brooklyn Line on various standard subway roadmaps. Nevertheless, it may well have been given its name after the South Brooklyn Railway that was the primary right of way for BMT Culver Line.

It is actually given its name with regard to its position, southern of the initial City of Brooklyn In the earlier nineteenth century virtually all the region southern of Atlantic Street, currently Atlantic Avenue, was basically farmland and known as Red Hook, and also the part to the south of the later on Hamilton Avenue, today the southern area of {Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, was basically Red Hook Point. The portion of the township to the south of Atlantic Street was initially annexed as the southern area of the Town in the middle nineteenth century, and is actually northwest of the middle of the much bigger contemporary borough. The rather traditional name of Southern Brooklyn was expanded in latest years in order to promote a closer link amongst the component neighborhoods, although the name has for ages been well-known nomenclature for the neighborhood’s local people. The revived expression had been much less. In general within Brooklyn, Hispanic human population transform in the course of the last 10 years is fundamentally level; a rise of 1.5%. This is an extremely reduced number. The southern 1 / 2 of Brooklyn, the Hispanic voting age group human population enhanced by practically 15% (US Health state, 2011).

Brief history of southern Brooklyn

Very few individuals know that the southern area of Brooklyn has merely been component of Brooklyn for bit of more than a century. What is currently Brooklyn, or Kings County, had been initially split into half a dozen self -ruling cities set up in the seventeenth century on the southwestern point of Long Island. 5 of the cities were settled generally by Dutch immigrants; these ended up being known as Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, New Utrecht, and also Brooklyn. The 6th and southernmost city, Gravesend, was launched by a group of The English language spiritual dissenters who fled intolerant Massachusetts for the much more favorable environment of New Netherland. Ultimately, the city of Brooklyn grew to be an integrated city, and in between 1854 and 1896, soaked up each and every of its neighbors (Gravesend ended up being annexed in 1894) till its boundaries equaled Kings County’s. Brooklyn, consequently, evolved into a borough of Larger New York City in 1898.

Southern Brooklyn’s Evolving Demographic

Southern Brooklyn used to be primarily white, however that is altering. In accordance to the 2010 Census, the black colored human population of local neighborhoods such as Mill Basin, Georgetown, Bergen Beach as well as Marine Park has leaped by 241% throughout the earlier 10 years, the greatest proportion increase within the town.

Middle -class black color households are drawn to the region for the similar cause that white-colored households are: single-family households on secure streets; great shopping; great neighbors. In Old Mill Basin in between Ralph and Flatbush Avenues, the principally aging adults white human population is becoming substituted by African-American as well as Caribbean households, carrying on with the pattern which flipped Flatlands as well as East Flatbush from middle-class white towns into middle-class dark-colored communities.

As the white-colored human population of Brooklyn changes eastward into typically black color communities like Bed-Stuy and also East New York, so does indeed the black color human population, shifting even further into Canarsie, Flatlands as well as the previously -white enclave of Old Mill Basin. Asian as well as Hispanic populations have additionally surged in the southern area of Brooklyn.

Brief overview of Southern Brooklyn’s demographic information

According to the latest census, Southern Brooklyn has a population of 286,900 constituted of the various age groups as shown in the table below (US Health state, 2011).

Age Southern Brooklyn Brooklyn New York
0 – 17 22% 27 24
18 – 24 8% 10 10
25 – 44 27% 31 33
45 – 64 24% 21 21
19% 11 12

Racial/ethnicity demographics

Southern Brooklyn Brooklyn New York
Whites 67 35 35
Hispanic 10 20 27
Asians 12 7 10
Blacks 8 34 24
Others 3 4 4

Mortality rates

The mortality rate in Southern Brooklyn has reduced by well over 10% in the previous 10 years, reflecting the rate decrease in New York City total (US Health state, 2011). In 2008-2009, the average yearly mortality rate within Southern Brooklyn was somewhat reduced than within Brooklyn and also comparable to the rate within New York City total.

Southern Brooklyn Brooklyn New York
2005-2006 800 815 834
2006-2007 784 785 796
2007-2008 796 792 795
2008-2009 780 782 790
2008-2009 761 760 768

Mortality rate: Deaths per 100,000 people

Premature death

Individuals that pass away prior to age seventy five can be considered as passing away prematurely. In the event that an individual passes away prematurely, their years of prospective life forfeited, can be determined simply by subtracting their particular age at passing away through seventy five years to get a measurement of premature dying (NYC.Gov., 2010). The actual triggers associated with premature dying differ throughout neighborhoods. The principal trigger of early loss of life in Southern Brooklyn is cancer, and also in both Brooklyn as well as New York City in general.

Top three causes of mortality in southern Brooklyn

Cause Percentage
Cancer 25
Heart disease 23
Drugs related causes 5

Cancer screening process can easily help save lives by stopping illness, detecting cancer in its beginning phases helps in offering possibilities for cure. The mortality rate as a result of cancer decreased slightly in Southern Brooklyn over the past decade as compared to Brooklyn and NYC overall rates.

Birth rates

There has also been a slight decline in the overall birth rate, going from 14.2 in 2007 to 13.4 in 2009. The percent of women who reported smoking during pregnancy has decreased over the years. However, since 2005, the smoking rate has fluctuated between 9.5% and 10.0% (United Health Foundation, 2010). The average age at first birth has increased slightly from 25.2 in 1990 to 26.2 in 2009. The percent of women reporting not being married when their infant was born has also increased since 1990 to 33.5% in 2009 (United Health Foundation, 2010).

Top three ethnic groups with high birth rates

Ethnic group Birth rate
African American 64%
Asians 45%
whites 18%

Southern Brooklyn Median Income is above Average

Southern Brooklyn’s median household income was $51,054 in 2009, according the American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Southern Brooklyn ranked 11th among states, well above the national median of $46,242. Southern Brooklyn’s median family income, $63,998, ranked tenth-highest among states. The New York median family income was $55,832 (United Health Foundation, 2010). Family income exceeds household income because non-family households generally have lower incomes than families. Nonfamily households are those with only one person or where unrelated people live together. On average nonfamily households are smaller and have fewer earners (US Health state, 2011). One-person households, which make up more than a quarter of all households in Southern Brooklyn, tend to have especially low incomes. They often contain an older person living on a modest retirement income. All the measures of median income are subject to sampling error; Southern Brooklyn might really be a few ranks above or below tenth or eleventh. The differences between Southern Brooklyn and New York are statistically significant.

Southern Brooklyn New York
White 494,400 11% 26.494,800 13%
Black 83,400 36% 12897,900 355
Hispanic 50,400 26% 16,702,200 34%
Other NSD NSD 4844100 23%
Total 692,700 13% 60,939,000 20%

Southern Brooklyn income (Source: US Health state, 2011)

  • Southern Brooklyn incomes are above the national average.
  • Adjusting for inflation and taking into account methodological differences, no firm conclusions can be drawn about changes in household and family incomes.
  • Households with a householder between the ages of 25 and 64 receive 85 percent of all income.
  • White households have higher incomes than nonwhite and Latino households.
  • The more education people have, the higher their earnings.
  • Men earn more than women.

Southern Brooklyn income

Southern Brooklyn income is more than $133 billion. Southern Brooklynns get an annual average earning exceeding $133 billion, according to the 2008 American Community Survey. Earned income account for up to 85% of Southern Brooklyn household earnings while approximately 79% comes from wages and salaries. Another 6% is generated from self-employment (Hamilton, Martin, & Ventura, 2010).

Other key earning sources consist of Social Security (5%), retirement income (4%) and interest, dividends and rent (4%) while public assistance amounts to earnings less than 1%.

83% of the households show earned income, 29% report asset earnings from interest, dividends and rent, and 24 percent received Social Security. Supplemental Security Income and public assistance were received by 3 percent of households.

Many households receive more than one type of income. For example, retirees may receive both Social Security and income from a pension. People who receive wages and salaries may also receive income from investments.

Conclusion

Other than collecting data with regard to household income, the American Community Survey provides information showing income of persons based on divergent demographic attributes. In the 2009 survey, Southern Brooklyn males reported median earning range of $41,411, in comparison to women’s $27,746 for women. Southern Brooklyn was ranked 15th on average male income and also 15th on average female income. Educational levels are similarly a key predictor of income. College level graduates earned up to twice as much, as that earned by persons who did not finish high school and 60% more than persons who graduated from high school level but failed to gain entry into a college. On basis of educational sector, women’s earning is considerably lower than that of men. The average income for females holding a Bachelor’s degree is just slightly higher compared to men who failed to advance higher than high school levels. In conclusion, it is important to note that Southern Brooklyn is an economically empowered state just as it is socially empowered.

References

Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Ventura, S.J. (2010). Births: Preliminary data for 2009. National vital statistics reports, 59 (3). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Web.

NYC.Gov. (2010). Web.

United Health Foundation. (2010). “America’s Health”, the American Public Health Association and the Partnership for Prevention. Web.

US Health state. (2011). US data center. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2020, September 26). Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/southern-brooklyns-demographics-and-health-rates/

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"Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates." IvyPanda, 26 Sept. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/southern-brooklyns-demographics-and-health-rates/.

1. IvyPanda. "Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/southern-brooklyns-demographics-and-health-rates/.


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IvyPanda. "Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/southern-brooklyns-demographics-and-health-rates/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/southern-brooklyns-demographics-and-health-rates/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Southern Brooklyn’s Demographics and Health Rates'. 26 September.

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