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Subject-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy Essay

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Updated: Mar 20th, 2020

Instructional Strategies

The instructional strategies to be adopted in the third grade must identify with learners to enhance their learning, as evidenced in the instructional plan that has been adopted for this lesson. One of the instructional strategies to be adopted for this class is the use of lecture methods. The teacher will deliver the content of the lesson through lecturing. This strategy will involve teachers’ speaking skills and learners’ listening skills. The teacher will prepare the lesson plans before the time of delivery.

In this strategy, the teacher will use his or her summary notes as a guide while speaking about a certain topic. Lecture method will involve the use of language level that the learners can identify within their grade. Choice of the word will be done about the language level of third graders. Third graders have a certain level of lexical comprehension that needs to be exploited at this level. Lecture strategy will enhance the understanding capacity of the learners since the teacher can repeat similar words for as many times as he or she wishes.

The topic to be delivered will also be relative to the day-to-day activities of the learners. During the delivery of the lesson, the teacher will highlight the keywords and new words on the chalkboard. The teacher observes directly the responses of the learners as he or she delivers the lesson. Both verbal and nonverbal cues will enable the teacher to know when to repeat, to pause, to expound on a point, and even to continue with the lecture.

The teacher will do a continuous evaluation during the lesson by asking oral questions. Summative evaluation will also be done at the end of the lesson where the teacher will ask oral questions from across the topic covered. The teacher will pick learners who will answer the questions randomly. The answers will also be delivered to the teacher orally.

The other instructional strategy that will be adopted for this lesson is the use of visual aids. Learners in the third grade have well-developed visual skills. They are also very interested in what they see about what they hear. In this case, the teacher will prepare visual aids such as word card, diagrams, charts, and actual items that are referenced in the content of the lesson. The instructor will read the content during the preparation of the lesson plan and involve the learners in preparing the visual aids.

For example, if the content of the lesson refers to parts of the body, the teacher will draw a human body diagram and label it in large words. The diagram will be made in a way that learners will be able to read it from far. The teacher may also involve students in drawing the diagrams on manila papers as he or she guides them.

Also, the teacher will collect other visual aids that make the learner understand the lesson more easily. For example, if the content of the lesson is about kitchen utensils, the teacher will collect real items such as cups, plates, spoons, sufurias, sieves, and cutlery. Learners will be interested in seeing the actual items.

Visual aids create a vivid mental picture of the item in the mind of the learner. It is also easier for learners in the third grade to identify with the item after they have already seen it. Visual aids will also involve the use of charts. Such charts will have diagrams that are related to the expository text of the day. For example, in the lesson about the human body, charts with diagrams of the human body shall be used for demonstration. The teacher will demonstrate the diagrams on the walls of the classroom. Learners will be instructed to observe the charts critically and even to draw what they see on the charts.

The other instructional strategy that the teacher will adopt is the discussion. When using this method, the teacher will prepare the topic of discussion before the lesson. The teacher will also develop questions of the discussion by the learners. Learning activities will also be developed. The teacher will then assemble the learners into a cluster of five or six pupils. The groups will be developed by the learner’s abilities going by their previous performance.

After the teacher has assigned the learners to different groups, he or she will then give out the assignment. The teacher will also direct the learners to nominate a group leader who will coordinate the sessions. The teacher will direct the group on how to go about its activities. The group leader will be directed on how to make sure that every member of the group is equally involved in the discussion.

The teacher will also play a supervisory role to ensure that the groups are active. The teacher will assist learners or groups that will have difficulties in solving questions or in handling the topics. He or she will also guide learners on a step-to-step method of handling the topics.

Learners will also be trained on turn-taking to ensure that they accord each other time to air their opinions. The teacher will also develop a mechanism to evaluate the performance of the group. For example, groups can compete in answering questions on the chalkboard. The answers that members of the group will give will be used to rate them. When a group member gives a correct answer to a particular question, the group will earn a certain amount of points.

The teacher will also ensure that learners have been exposed to a similar topic or passage for an equal amount of time. Hence, they will have a similar ability to answer questions from it. The teacher will record scores to be summarized at the end of the lesson. He or she will also correct whenever a learner goes wrong when answering questions. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will also give the right answers to questions that learners do not get right.

Explanations of the topics and questions that learners do not understand will also be done at the end of the lesson. The teacher will also give a reward for the winning group to motivate it to uphold group work. He or she will also explain the reason for awarding the group to encourage other learners to be the winners in the following lesson. Learners will, therefore, feel buoyant by the action that the teacher takes, thus ensuring that their group becomes the winner in the next lesson.

Students’ Activities

Learning is said to have taken place only if there is a change in the behavior of the learners. In the lesson described above, learners will also have their roles to play. Learners are required to be actively involved in the lesson since they are the end users of the learning process. In the lecture strategy, they will be expected to show their commitment to the lesson in several ways. As the teacher lectures, the students will be involved in the lesson by listening carefully.

Students will actively pay attention to the lectures. Good listening skills will involve concentration and ensuring that there are no disruptions during the lesson. Learners will also be required to take short notes as the teacher lectures on a particular topic. For example, if the teacher will be lecturing about how body parts function, learners will be required to draw the body parts and make short notes.

They will also take part in asking oral questions. At some point, the teacher may call on the pupils to demonstrate some actions that are depicted in the text. For example, if the teacher is teaching about active verbs, learners will participate in illustrating the actions that the verbs depict.

When teachers adopt the use of visual aids as a non-verbal method, learners will also be actively involved. Learners will be involved in observing the visual aids that the teacher uses. Development of visual skills is important to learners. Learners need to have sharp observation skills as they grow in the social ladder. The teacher will call on individual learners to read aloud the items or words that are written on visual aids.

Learners will, therefore, be involved in standing up and reading the visual aids. The teacher may also ask questions from the charts, graphs, and real items. For example, the teacher will ask learners questions such as, “What is the name of part A?”, “What is the function of part C in the diagram above?” Learners will be expected to stand up to answer the questions.

It will also be the role of the students to be involved actively in creating similar visual aids as directed by the teacher. For example, if the teacher teaches about kitchen utensils where he or she displays some of the items in diagrams, learners will be required to draw the items on their books. Drawing also develops creativity in them.

The teacher may also place the real item at a particular place and request a student to draw it. Learners will, therefore, observe the visual aid closely and sketch it on their books or the chalkboard as the teacher may instruct. The learners will also take part in taking other pupils through the diagrams on the visual aids. For example, one of the pupils may stand up, open the flip charts, and guide other learners through the diagrams.

It will also be the responsibility of the students to correct each other when they realize that they are making mistakes in pronunciation or labeling of items. They will also actively ask questions from the teacher as he or she lectures. Students will also have the duty to request the teacher to clarify on points that they feel they do not understand. Such an action will also assist them in understanding the content better.

Moreover, it will also enable their classmates to understand the content of the lesson. Learners will also seek clarification of instructions that the teacher will issue. Other activities in this strategy will include writing, drawing, and observing. In some instances, learners will assist the teacher in displaying the items and holding the charts and diagrams to a position that everybody in the class can see.

One of the pupils or two may be requested to take one of the flip charts around the class for his or her classmates to have a closer look at the drawings. Such pupils will be required to hold the chart properly and at a certain angle to ensure that learners in every corner of the class can have had a chance of looking at the diagram, understanding it, and interpreting it.

In case the teacher adopts the discussion strategy in teaching, learners will be required to be the most involved participants in the lesson. Discussion method involves students themselves in deliberating about certain topics or questions. The learners will be expected to be organized while working in groups. It will also be important for the learners to abide by the rules that are set by the teacher and by the group members concerning group participation.

Members of the group will also be required to obey the directions of the group leader. Activities of the group will involve turn-taking in the discussion and assisting each other in the interpretation of diagrams and questions. Learners will also be involved in researching certain ideas in other reference books. They will work in collaboration with each other. Patience is required in this method. Pupils will also participate in explaining concepts to other learners in case of group competition.

They will be involved in competing with members of other groups. It will also be required that learners will draw, write, and demonstrate various concepts. As they discuss, they will write, listen, and discuss various things. They will also debate with other members on various issues. The active debate will even make the concept of discussion clearer in their mind. It will also be the role of the students to correct their colleagues whenever they err in their presentation during the discussion.

They will also demonstrate to others in case the topic of discussion involves demonstration. For example, if the teacher directs them to discuss kitchen utensils and their functions, students will demonstrate how various items are used. For instance, a learner may draw a spoon and demonstrate how it is used for eating. Other learners may demonstrate how other items such as cups, plates, and knives are used in the kitchen.

They will also demonstrate their understanding of various issues. As a case in point, if the lesson is about school games, they will demonstrate how they kick balls and play chess, hockey, and other games. Such a demonstration makes it easy for other students to understand the concept. Teaching aids and resources to be used in this lesson will include charts, graphs, drawings, real items such as footballs, jumping ropes, cups, spoons, plates, books, and others as the lesson content may demand.

Why the instructional strategies, students’ activities, and resources listed above are appropriate

For this class

The instructional strategies discussed above are very crucial for this lesson. The use of the lecture strategy of pedagogy is important for third graders. In third grade, most of the learners have developed listening and speaking skills. Most of the pupils at this level enjoy being taught. It is out of this trust that they have in listening that they enjoy storytelling. Learners at this stage form imaginations based on what they hear.

It is also easier for learners in the third grade to believe what they hear by word of mouth. Lecture method is set to exploit these skills. It is, therefore, appropriate to use the lecture method in teaching third graders since it is more passive relative to other strategies of pedagogy. Learners in third grade highly depend on what they are told. They are more reliant on instructions provided rather than on what they think.

The teacher will, therefore, have a good time lecturing to learners as they listen. In the lecture method, there are fewer disruptions of the lesson. Students can concentrate on the words of the teacher. The teacher is also put at the point of an advantage since he or she can monitor every step of the students. As the teacher delivers the lesson, it becomes easy to spot pupils with little concentration or strayed minds to call their names to bring them back to class.

The teacher is also able to monitor the response of the pupils throughout the lesson. For example, if the teacher is teaching about certain virtues such as kindness, he or she may narrate a short story of a certain character that was very kind. In the middle of the story, he or she will engage a song or some words that are overly repeated by the character. In every point that the character sings the song or repeats the words, pupils will be expected to sing along or respond along with the speaker.

It will, therefore, be easy for the teacher to monitor the non-verbal cues of the learners. Non-verbal cues will enable him or her to know when the pupils find it difficult to understand a concept. For example, they may frown, look anxious, and even make faces. With such indicators, the teacher will understand their position. He or she will, therefore, be able to adjust quickly over time to make up for the lost content.

He or she may repeat the content, explain further and in details, or give elaborate examples. The lecture method also provokes easy reactions from learners. Pupils find it easy to ask questions and even make comments since the lesson is also delivered orally with little or no writing.

It becomes easier for them to answer the questions without writing, which also makes it convenient for the teacher to keep up to speed with his or her continuous evaluation. Learners also find it easy to understand concepts that are delivered through the word of mouth since they use these skills every day.

Use of visual aids in the delivery of the lesson is also an appropriate pedagogy for learners in the third grade. At this age, pupils are more attracted to visual items relative to what they hear. It is, therefore, right to use visual materials such as flip charts, graphs, drawings, and photographs in teaching.

Learners’ attention will be attracted by visual aids hence making the lesson livelier for them. The visual aids adopted for this lesson are filtered to fit the developmental needs of the learners, their language level, and ability. It is easier for learners in this grade to identify an item that they see that an item that they have heard about in the past. It is also worth noting that visual aids will involve the use of the actual items that are depicted in the content.

Using real items makes the learner precise in understanding. For example, when he or she sees a serving spoon when learning about kitchen utensils, he or she is not likely to forget about it. The use of visual aids enables the pupil to form a vivid mental picture of the concept that the teacher is delivering in class. For example, in the case of kitchen utensils, the learner will always see the image of a spoon whenever it is mentioned since he or she saw it.

Use of visual aids also makes the lesson more involving to learners since they engage both listening and observation skills. Visual aids enable the development of observation skills, which form a very crucial booster in the learning process. In most of the examinations that the learner is likely to sit for in the future, there will be questions and concept to test his or her observation skills. The learner will, therefore, learn how to label, identify, and even draw various items that any student in his or her grade is required to know.

Some of the concepts that pupils in the third grade should be taught are complex. However, with the use of visual aids, they can easily understand the intended concept. The teacher will also find it easier to explain the concept since he or she can point at the diagram to make learners understand.

For example, when explaining the items used in the kitchen, it may be very hard to create the concept of a serving spoon or to distinguish between various types of spoons and their functions. However, with visual aids, it becomes easier to demonstrate to the learner the diagrams or photographs of each type of spoon and perhaps a photograph of it in use. In the process of drawing, writing skills and creativity are nurtured.

Discussion method is also appropriate for third graders. In this age and developmental stage, learners have developed a sense of relationship and belonging. Pupils at this age prefer identifying with others in various activities. It is, therefore, important to merge what they repeatedly do outside the classroom into class activities. Discussion method creates associations and social skills in learners. Students learn to work as social beings and to live in peace with others.

A sense of interdependence is created in the lives of learners. When pupils are put in groups, they can realize the need for living and work with others. In discussions, learners speak turns. Every member speaks after the other, thus ensuring the participation of all. Such a move ensures that students develop social interaction skills.

They also learn to respect each other’s opinion in their day-to-day life. Such learners learn that every human being is important and entitled to his or her own opinion. In a discussion process, the teacher may appoint leaders. Besides, he or she may delegate the role of nominating leaders to the group members.

Sometimes the teacher may discuss with group members on their opinions on who they believe is their best leader. Such activities ensure that they develop leadership skills at that age. Learners who are identified as leaders of the group can develop leadership skills, which may end up developing into high leadership skills in the future.

The discussion also creates a sense of democracy in the world of third graders. Moderated discussions promote the development of a sense of peace, order, and equality. Learners develop the ability to accept the divergent views of others. Moreover, they will learn that there is a need to have a leader in every activity in which they will involve themselves. The functions of the leader will also be learned at this level.

As the groups discuss and compete for top positions, learners will learn to appreciate that there are a winner and a loser in every competition. They will also learn that those who lose in competitions should accept their positions and work hard to ensure that they become winners in the future.

In a discussion scenario, pupils will gain a lot of information from their classmates and their teacher. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will ensure that he or she discusses the difficult areas in a bid to correct the mistakes that the pupils might have made.

Students’ activities are also appropriate for third graders. At this level of learning, it is very important to integrate learning and day-to-day activities of the learner. In these lessons, pupils will be involved actively in listening, hence developing and exercising their listening and writing tactics as a way of heightening their creativity and demonstration capacity, which further boosts their courage and confidence.

These are the most appropriate skills for third graders. While they are discussing, learners will enhance their public speaking skills and hence develop as confident, eloquent, and leadership-driven children.

For Developmental needs of students

Learners in the third grade are supposed to develop skills such as oral, writing, listening, comprehension, and social expertise. The strategies of teaching that are discussed above are tailored to enhance and to develop these skills. For example, the use of the lecture method in teaching is tailored to develop the listening skills of learners. The teacher plays the role of a speaker while pupils listen to his or her words.

The teacher controls his or her speed in talking depending on the complexity of the subject matter. For example, students in this class come from middle-income families. Therefore, they may have difficulties in understanding sophisticated kitchen utensils that are used by very rich people. In the same way, learners in this class may not comprehend some subjects driven from very poor and traditional settings. The teacher is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that learners understand.

In the same way, the teacher has to offer an excellent atmosphere for students to exercise their learning skills. They learn that listening is optimized through concentration and the absence of noise. Oratory skills are also developed in the lecture strategy since teachers sometimes ask learners to read or repeat the words as he or she pronounces them.

Whenever the teacher adopts the use of discussion strategy, learners can develop their oratory skills, leadership skills, social interaction skills, and respect for other people’s opinion. In the discussion method, the teacher and pupils are involved in deliberations about a topic or a question. In this case, students are actively involved in the lesson.

Their opinion counts. The teacher may also come up with groups, which he or she assigns leaders or requests the group members to elect a leader. In such cases, pupils in the third grade will develop their leadership, responsibility, and social skills. The group leader will begin identifying himself or herself with leaders. He will also learn that leadership comes with responsibilities.

Social skills are developed when learners take turns in discussions where they differ and agree on the answer to a certain problem. Unity and teamwork are also nurtured since they end up realizing that it is only after working with others that they achieve a certain goal.

For example, if the group assignment was to cut and make a cube from a manila paper, they will have to work together. One pupil may cut as the other one measures while the other one folds the paper to make the cube. Finally, they can glue the pieces to achieve a cube.

Teamwork and social skills are therefore fostered. In the use of visual aids, the teacher aims at developing observation skills, which are crucial for this stage and later stages. Learners should be able to accurately identify certain items, figures, and label them. The ability to distinguish one item from the other on the diagram is also nurtured.

Observation skills will be useful in various subjects in the third grade and the future. For example, in science studies, students will be requested to observe the behavior of small animals and insect, for instance. Observation skills will, therefore, be very important.

How the strategies discussed above help students to make progress towards achieving the state-adopted academic content standards

In this content area, the state curriculum requires students to develop various skills. Such skills should enable learners to connect classroom teaching and real-life situation. For example, learners should be able to take care of and respect the environment after they read a text on animals and insects. The larger goal of the state is to make learners appreciate the environment. It is also required that learners develop thinking and problem-solving skills.

Teachers present students with topics for discussion and questions to solve. While discussing and developing answers, they develop problem-solving skills. For example, they learn that it is easier to work with others in finding solutions. Social interaction skills are also supposed to be developed at this stage. The methodology trains leaders to handle peer pressure and appreciate individuality. For instance, while working in groups during a discussion, they will realize that not every idea that comes from friends is truthful.

In the lecture method, students will also witness some of the answers that their peers give being rejected by the teacher. Such episodes make them selective in choosing friends and in accepting the influence of peers. Therefore, based on these advantages that the aforementioned strategies have on the individual student, it suffices for teachers to develop mechanisms of teaching them effectively in a bid to boost the academic progress of the student in this and other grades.

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