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The Mechanisms of Kidney Function Case Study


Bacteria and White Blood Cells

The condition with which the woman is diagnosed causes such negative manifestation as localized kidney infection. In addition, it encompasses the work of renal pelvis as well. The signs of abscess processes are cell debris and neutrophils. The exuded substance has the potential to affect renal tubules, and white blood cells exhibit that a focal infection is present (Bostwick & Cheng, 2014). In the case of the current patient, the condition has evolved due to the response of inflammatory mediators to the bacteria. Therefore, the exudate produces urine indicative of this disease (the bacteria typical for this contagion and casts).

Differences Between Renal Failure Types

Prerenal acute renal failure is a consequence of insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which appears due to a violation of cardiac activity (for example, due to hemorrhagic, post-transfusion shock). In the renal arteries, there is a cessation of blood flow, which causes their ischemia and leads to necrosis of tubular epithelium and the development of dystrophic changes (deWit & Kumagai, 2014). In addition, disruption of the delivery of water and sodium to the distal tubules increases the secretion of renin, which intensifies ischemia.

Intrarenal acute renal failure can develop in two ways. In the first case, immune allergic processes cause the failure of the renal parenchyma. In particular, it occurs due to circulatory disorders and various kinds of glomerular endothelial lesions. In the second case, the lesion appears due to toxic substances that act on the kidney tissue (deWit & Kumagai, 2014). Nephrotoxic substances affect the epithelium of the tubules and cause necrotic changes and their exfoliation (deWit & Kumagai, 2014). Differences in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure lie in the fact that in the prerenal form the disturbance of blood circulation has a global character, and in the renal failure – the local one.

Postrenal acute renal failure occurs due to ureteral obstruction or compression of ureters from the outside by a tumor infiltrate. Also, the cause can be an iatrogenic factor. Unlike the first two types, the postrenal form is characterized by a slower decrease in glomerular filtration (Swearingen, 2015). Therefore, irreversible changes develop within 3-4 days.

References

Bostwick, D. G., & Cheng, L. (2014). Urologic surgical pathology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier.

deWit, S. C., & Kumagai, C. K. (2014). Medical-surgical nursing: Concepts & practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier.

Swearingen, P. L. (2015). All-in-one care planning resource (4th ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier.

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IvyPanda. (2020, October 2). The Mechanisms of Kidney Function. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-mechanisms-of-kidney-function/

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"The Mechanisms of Kidney Function." IvyPanda, 2 Oct. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/the-mechanisms-of-kidney-function/.

1. IvyPanda. "The Mechanisms of Kidney Function." October 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-mechanisms-of-kidney-function/.


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IvyPanda. "The Mechanisms of Kidney Function." October 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-mechanisms-of-kidney-function/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "The Mechanisms of Kidney Function." October 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-mechanisms-of-kidney-function/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'The Mechanisms of Kidney Function'. 2 October.

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