The Brazilian AIDS Program
The Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) has registered commendable success in its approach towards HIV/AIDS management. The Brazilian HIV/AIDS program takes into consideration factors such as economic ability, sexual orientation, and gender in trying to control the spread of HIV. Active participation of Brazilian civil society has also contributed towards the success of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS program. Unlike most developing countries, the Brazilian HIV/AIDS program employs an integrated approach that comprises HIV/AIDS prevention, free access to quality anti-retroviral drugs, and respect for human rights. Brazil’s application of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in the production of local anti-retroviral drugs has reduced the cost of medication.
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Role of the World Bank in Funding Health Programs
The scale and intensity of worldwide health challenges cannot be addressed by a single government or agency. Through Results-based Financing for Health (RBF), the World Bank seeks to link health program initiatives with positive results. The World Bank also gives loans to countries so that they can fund public health. RBF programs work by transferring goods or monetary compensation to health care providers who are supposed to attain a certain set of performance targets. Though the World Bank has considerably supported several health programs throughout the world, certain programs such as mental and maternal health are in dire need of financial support.
The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in Public Health
Non-governmental organizations are not the best in funding health programs. One of the advantages of NGOs in funding health programs is that they are highly accountable compared to the local or state authorities (Romzek, 2000). Besides, they tend to expedite service provision especially when there are emergencies. NGOs reach emergencies before other actors and are often the last to leave. The Nongovernmental organizations also have access to valuable information especially in regards to the funding needs of healthcare institutions. On the other hand, NGOs lack adequate funding for healthcare. They mostly depend on handouts from well-wishers and other charitable organizations. They may also lack adequate human resource capacity.
Maternal Mortality and Unsafe Abortion in Botswana
The stigma attributed to abortion and the restrictive anti-abortion laws push most women with undesired pregnancies to seek clandestine techniques of terminating pregnancies (RamaRao & Mohanam, 2003). In Botswana, abortion-related deaths are caused by severe infections, excessive bleeding, and organ damage. Since abortion has been illegal in Botswana since 1991, most complications that result from unsafe abortion are never reported. Women also fear seeking urgent treatment. Tswana women die while eluding the law. Another factor to consider when looking at maternal deaths is access to contraceptives. Abortion-related maternal deaths can be blamed on the government and non-governmental organizations since they are charged with overseeing reproductive health.
Should the Laws on Abortion in Botswana be Relaxed or Abolished?
Although most unsafe abortions in Botswana are connected to the strict law, relaxing or abolishing the law is not the appropriate way of responding to the high rates of maternal deaths because lenient laws can lead to increased sexual activity that can later lead to the rise in sexually-transmitted infections. The Government of Botswana should focus on availing contraceptives and educating its citizens on the importance and use of contraceptives. Women should also be educated and empowered on how to make informed reproductive health decisions. The government and non-governmental organizations should also address the fear of contraceptives among women.
Culture as a Tool for Alleviating Misconceptions about Unwanted Pregnancies in Botswana
Since the socio-cultural ideology in Botswana restricts women from bearing children until they are married, it can be used as a positive and effective tool in minimizing certain misconceptions surrounding unwanted pregnancies. For example, if women are allowed to bear children only after being married, such misconceptions will no longer be in place. Second, since sexual affairs are supposed to be controlled by men, unwanted pregnancies can be completely be blamed on men because women have no control over sexual activities (according to the culture). Therefore, men can be compelled to be responsible for all unwanted pregnancies. Rape cases and undesired sexual relations can be prosecuted to alleviate cases of unwanted pregnancies.
RamaRao, S. & Mohanam, R. (2003). The quality of family planning programs: Concepts, measurements, interventions, and effects. Studies in Family Planning, 34(4), 227–248.
Romzek, B. (2000). Dynamics of public sector accountability in an era of reform. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66(1), 21-44.