What were the events leading to the Treaty of Paris in 1763? Discuss its effects
There were three events that led to the Treaty of Paris in 1763: the war of the Polish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, and the Seven Years’ War. The war of the Polish Succession resulted in the annexation of the important province (county of Bar) to the Polish king. In addition, a new Bourbon monarchy was established in southern Europe which ensured beneficial alliances with European leaders.
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As the result of the war of the Austrian Succession, Louis XV gained Belgium into possession of France, however, he was forced to give up Belgium as well as Savoy and Nice for the sake of peace. The Seven Years’ War has resulted in defeat as well. France became weaker and the Treaty of Paris obliged France to give up its colonies in the West Indies to England. Thus, the military failure of Louis XV resulted in the weakening of the French domination in colonies and the only way to prevent war was to sign a peace treaty. The Treaty of Paris saved France from another defeat.
Discuss the intellectual ferment of the time and its long-range effects. Suggest reasons for the growth of dissent
The vast majority of the French population was rural. However, the growing prosperity and the increase in population laid the foundation for the evolvement of intellectual society. The main reason for the growth of dissent is honesty and enlightenment of administration that promoted harmonization of the centralized policy. Administration promoted improvements in agriculture, tax collection, town planning, and other activities which enhanced the development of the population. The population was no longer interested in political, economic, and scientific questions. The conversations became more philosophical and critical. The long-range effects of intellectual movements were the cultural development of the French population and the resulting industrial revolution which brought economic benefits.
Like his predecessors, Louis XV had to deal with religious controversy. Briefly compare and contrast the religious controversies of Louis XV’s reign with those of Louis XIV’s reign
Louis XIV was inspired by the Duke of Saint-Simon and replaced ministers with six councils. Nevertheless, his lifestyle hardly corresponded to the Christian principles: even though he was honest, generous, and cultivated, he was lazy and lacked moral sense. Louis XIV spent his evenings in the company of fellow debauchees and did not feel the need to follow the church. Louis XV, on the contrary, was under influence of his tutor, the bishop of Frejus. Louis XV added the title of cardinal to this bishop. With the help of his tutor, Louis XV promoted peaceful domestic and foreign policies.
Discuss the effects of Mme. de Pompadour’s influence over Louis XV
Louis XV had a passion for women and never rejected the advances of ladies at court. Madame de Pompadour was a daughter of middle-class financiers; however, with the help of Louis XV, she became a marquise. For twenty years, she was the chief political adviser to Louis XV. Madame de Pompadour realized that her influence over Louis XV was great, nevertheless, her advice was effective.
She came from a middle-class society and she was aware of all problems in society. After the death of his tutor, Louis XV needed someone else to replace the loss. All of his life he was guided and Louis XV could not make independent decisions without a counselor he could trust. Madame de Pompadour was the one to replace the bishop. She was a woman he loved and a person he trusted.