|1. What is the research question the author(s) is trying to answer?||In fact, there are no direct or indirect research questions in the article. For that reason, it is hard to say what particular questions the authors tried to answer in their project. In the beginning, they identified β–lactoglobulin as one of the main whey proteins that could be found in the milk of cows and other ruminants. Then, the assumption that some DPP-4 inhibitors could be found in short peptides of the chosen protein was made. The authors did not question this possibility but underlined the necessity to investigate the presence of DPP-4 inhibitors in the offered context.|
|2. What is the purpose of the article? Is it clearly described?||The aim of the article is the identification of DPP-4 inhibitors that can be found among short peptides of hydrolysates of β–lactoglobulin. The importance of this project is clearly described in the introductory section. The authors admit that the administration of foods that may influence incretin degradation cannot be ignored. Inhibition of intestinal DPP-4 determines the work of the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of DPP-4 inhibitors in β–lactoglobulin-derived peptides remains a poorly discovered research topic. The authors made a decision to focus on angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and find out the dipeptides. In the discussion sections, a new biological function was reported that was not declared as a purpose of the study. Therefore, it is possible to say that the authors failed to give enough clear explanations of their purposes and could not predict the possible scope of the chosen problem.|
|3. Is the literature review comprehensive and current?||While reading the article by Tulipano, Sibilia, Caroli, and Cocchi, it seemed that the creation of a thorough literature review was not the primary goal of the study. Still, the offered paragraphs contained a rather comprehensive and current flow of events. First, it is necessary to admit that the publication dates varied from 1994 to 2010 (the year of the chosen article’s publication was 2011). Therefore, almost all sources were credible and within the last ten years. |
Second, the authors chose peer-reviewed sources to support their discussion and give all the definitions that could be necessary for the study. For example, the choice of the DPP-4 enzyme was explained through the prism of treatment of type 2 diabetes and the role of such gut-derived peptides as a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1. Whey and caseins were defined as the main sources of protein in milk that could reduce the level of postprandial glucose and promote the stimulation of insulin in healthy and diabetic subjects. Finally, the literature review helped to get a clear idea of the main concepts and components of the experiment that was developed to achieve the established goal and contribute to the discussion of diet supplements and glycemic control.
|4. Are major issues and concepts related to the question identified and clearly defined?||The identification of the major issues and concepts related to the study can be defined as one of its strengths. The authors began their project by giving clear definitions and explanations to all components of their experiment. Though their identifications were brief, all of them were up to a point. For example, incretin-based practices were introduced as effective therapies for treating type 2 diabetes. |
Therefore, the chosen incretin hormones that could promote insulin secretion turned out to be a reasonable concept for the study. The discussion of β–lactoglobulin as one of the whey proteins helped to understand why it was desirable that all the peptides had to be derived from β–lactoglobulin. The DPP-4 choice was also clearly explained because its inhibition was one of the possible ways to affect increin degradation.
|5. Is information missing that is needed to answer the question posed by the author(s)?||The authors admitted that they failed to give enough information about the plasma concentration of the defined tripeptides that was associated with protein consumptions. Whey consumption has specific effects on incretin hormones, and their degradation could change the work of the gastrointestinal tract in different ways. In light of this fact, this type of information can be called as missing one for a strong understanding of the physiological relevance of tripeptides and DPP-4 inhibitors. In addition, it is necessary to admit that clear information about the obtained results and how they can be used in future studies is missing, confusing the reader and potential researchers. Still, in the scope of the chosen problem and research goals that were established, all material and conclusions were properly discussed.|
|6. How strong is the study’s level of evidence?||In this study about proteins as the source of DPP-4 inhibitors, the authors made a decision to introduce an experiment in several stages, including in silico analysis and in vitro assay. According to a well-known evidence pyramid, in vitro studies aimed at providing the lowest reliable evidence in the field of medical or pharmacological research. This project is the source of information that was gathered in a laboratory. General ideas were developed and formulated to be used in future therapies and promote the improvements connected with glycemic control interventions.|
|7. What recommendations would you give to improve the study?||Regarding the goals and resources that were established in this study, the authors made certain achievements and contributed to the discussion of the presence of DPP-4 inhibitors in peptides that may be derived from β–lactoglobulin. However, several ideas on how to improve this project can be given. For example, the article could be strengthened with the help of a thoroughly developed literature review. The authors managed to introduce a number of significant terms and concepts in the biological and medical fields. Still, a reader with poor background knowledge can be lost in all these terms. Many issues remain unexplained, and the beginning of the article should contain clear definitions and explanations of the research worth|
|8. What separate studies should be done in future to advance this research area?||To advance the chosen research area, the authors recommended paying special attention to the investigation of the bioactivity of the intact tripeptide IPA. It is possible to focus on the physiological properties of IPA activity that may be discovered as a part of a DPP-4 inhibitor. In addition, some dietary studies can be developed to explain the importance of β–lactoglobulin in glycemic control. Finally, the idea to introduce new glycemic control interventions cannot be ignored because it turns out to be serious progress in the management of type 2 diabetes.|
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IvyPanda. (2021, May 11). Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/whey-proteins-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors/
"Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors." IvyPanda, 11 May 2021, ivypanda.com/essays/whey-proteins-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors/.
1. IvyPanda. "Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors." May 11, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/whey-proteins-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors/.
IvyPanda. "Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors." May 11, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/whey-proteins-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors/.
IvyPanda. 2021. "Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors." May 11, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/whey-proteins-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors/.
IvyPanda. (2021) 'Whey Proteins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors'. 11 May.
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