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The study was carried outwith the aim of examining the association that existed “between the social capital and all-cause mortality in a large in a large occupational cohort in Finland” (Oksanen et al, 2011, p.1742).
Moreover, one of the hypotheses that the study sought to test is whether low workplace social capital exposure and the associated changes in capital had an association with increased levels of mortality (OKsanen 2011). Also, the study examined the above relationship using previous corresponding findings on depression, self related health, workplace social capital, and 22 all-cause mortality correlates.
The study’s respondents came from the Finnish public sector where employees were selected in 21 hospitals from different towns in Finland. While conducting the study, the records of the employees were used with the aim of identifying the eligible sample from the population who would be used during the survey. Two surveys were carried out but the analyses used only 28043 employees of between 20 and 66 years of age.
The mortality rate was analyzed among the employees in the period between January 2005 and December 2009. The study combined both exploratory and explanatory study methods. For example, it is exploratory in the sense that it gives an introduction on the issues under the study as part of its exploration. On the other hand, it is explanatory as the researchers developed a hypothesis which is later proven after the collection and analysis of the collected data.
Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study. For instance, statistical data was collected which was used for statistical inferences like regression and variances calculation. On the other hand, the study used qualitative data and information like demographics, age, and behaviours.
On analysis, the data was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. For example, statistical variances, means, confidence intervals, and regression analysis were carried which are quantitative analyses. In the process, SAS software was used to analyze the data statistically. The study also adopted already existing data of the sample population which was collected from different offices.
For example, demographic statistics of the employees were collected from the different employers of the sample population. Questionnaires were also designed and used to collect data and information from the selected sample. For example, a 12 item General Health Questionnaire was applied to measure psychological distress (OKsanen 2011).
Generally, the research findings showed a strong correlation between death and use of antidepressants and current smoking. As a result, males were associated with a higher mortality rate compared to women. On the aspect of demographics, the results from item 1 and 2 had similar results with less discrepancies being witnessed. The results on mortality risk and workplace social capital were parallel to the estimates of Cox regression.
Therefore, the study hypothesis was verified as a relationship was found to exist between workplace social factor and employee mortality. To sum it up, the analytical studies carried showed that low workplace social capital could result to lowered employee mortality (OKsanen 2011). The authors conclude that diverse studies are required to refute or confirm the study hypothesis. Also, future studies are required to examine the association which exists between the used variables.
Critically, the study has followed most of the scientific study approaches especially in the selection of the sample population. The data was collated and collected in a scientific and professional way as it used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Different analytical tools have been applied in a dimensional way with the objective of testing the hypothesis of the study.
The study summarizes the study at the first page through the use of an abstract which gives the reader an overview of the research objective, method, results, and the conclusion. More specifically, the study is extensive, professional, articulate and well organized.
However, despite the excellent work carried during the study, the research fails to show the major causes of death. For example, the study fails to show whether a relationship existed between the social capital workforce and the observed associations.
The study failed to use the private service sector and correlate with the public sector before giving the conclusions. The study assessed using the obvious health risks behaviours like alcohol consumption and smoking which are known to be major causes of death. Instead, employees not indulging in the associated health risks behaviours would have been used.
The study has a number of limitations which makes it less applicable for generalization purposes. Firstly, the research uses more women (82%) and hence concludes that men are more likely to die from health risk behaviours than women. Secondly, the study uses public sector without putting into considerations the private sector. Also, the study limited its self to specific cohorts instead to conducting an extensive study.
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As a result, the results may be biased hence not reliable for generalization purposes. Numerous studies are required where participants from private and public sector as well as from both genders would be used. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health which implies that it observed all the set ethical issues like privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity. However, the researchers had a lot of personal details which would jeopardize the ethics if it fell on wrong hands.
Oksanen, T., Kivimaki, M., Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V., Takao, S., Suzuki, E., & Vahtera, J. (2011). Workplace Social capital and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study of 28043 public-sector employees in Finland. American Journal of Public Health, 101(9), 1742-1748,