APA Citation Style Guide (6th ed.)

APA is among the styles you will encounter the most often, and so we have prepared a simple guide to its usage. It is designed by people who have worked on many academic papers to help you with any difficulties that might arise.

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This guide is developed in line with American Psychological Association. (2013). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

What is APA?

American Psychological Association is an established agency that supports research and education in psychology and related fields of science. APA citation style has been developed by this organization in order to assist researchers with a framework for citing other scholarly works. This citation style is usually used in research papers and assignments on psychology, nursing, medicine, sociology, and associated subject areas. APA differs from other citation styles in capitalization and punctuation. For instance, the names of smaller works in APA are in sentence case, whereas MLA applies title case. Additionally, as opposed to Chicago, APA style does not include footnotes. APA style is very similar to the Harvard referencing system, but there are some minor differences between them.

Why Cite Your Sources?

Citing and referencing other people’s works in your paper is crucial for a number of reasons:

  • It helps you to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined as the appropriation of other people’s ideas and the attempt to present them as your own. In the academic community, this is considered to be a severe violation that might affect your future studies and scholarly career. By citing and referencing your sources correctly, you acknowledge that the ideas and information you present came from another person’s work, thus avoiding plagiarism.
  • It ensures that you acknowledge other people’s input into the development of a subject field. Most researchers are driven by the desire to improve the volume of knowledge in their area of inquiry. Hence, addressing other scholars’ input shows that you respect their work and commitment. Citing and referencing sources is part of professional ethics in the academic community, and thus, it will help you to build a positive reputation.
  • It enables people to find more information on the topic. When people read your work, they might come upon an exciting idea that they would like to explore further. By citing the source appropriately, you help them to track this information down and locate other articles on the topic, which might help them in research and learning.

Citation vs. Reference

Сiting

Referencing

A citation is the mentioning of a particular source in the body of the paper. In APA style, a citation usually includes the author’s name and year only. However, if a direct quote is used, page numbers are also required.

A reference is a bibliographic entry that corresponds to a particular source. In other words, it is the information about a source that you put on a separate page containing the list of all works cited in the paper.

Examples

Paraphrasing: Studies found that women have a higher risk of depression than men (Albert, 2015).

Quoting: “The prevalence of major depression is higher in women than in men” (Albert, 2015, p. 219).

Example

Albert, P. R. (2015). Why is depression more prevalent in women? Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 40(4), 219-221.

General Principles of Formatting in APA

  • Double-spacing
  • APA Margins – 1″ (2.54 cm), while paper size should be 8.5″ x 11″
  • Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt. font (unless the instructions require a different font)

APA papers contain page headers (or ‘running head(s)’) at the top of every page together with page numbers. Page numbers are inserted flush right, while the title of the paper written in UPPER CASE is inserted flush left.

!!! Your title in the header should contain no more than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation).

Papers written in APA style are divided into the following sections:

  • Title Page
  • Abstract (if required)
  • Table of Contents (if required)
  • Body
  • References
  • Appendix (if required)
Sections of APA Style Papers graphics

APA Title Page

Header:

Running head: THE TITLE (with words ‘Running head’ only on the title page)

You do not to use the words ‘Running head’ on all the following pages, only use THE TITLE

Title:

  • Your title should be inserted in the upper half of the first page.
  • You should not use more than 12 words for your title.
  • Use upper and lower case (avoid abbreviations and redundant words).
  • Title page should be double-spaced.
  • Insert the author’s name below the title.
  • Insert the educational institution below the author’s name.
Example of APA format Title Page

APA Abstract

  • Abstract is written on a new page; this page should contain a page header (see above).
  • The word “Abstract” is centered on the new page. Do not use quotation marks, bold, italics, or any other formatting.
  • The text on the abstract page is NOT indented.
  • The abstract in APA should contain only the most relevant information, such as research topic/thesis statement, research question(s), sample size/participants, research design/method, data analysis, results, and conclusions.
  • The abstract consists of a single paragraph (about 130-150 words) of double-spaced text.
  • If keywords are required, they are indented and written beneath the abstract paragraph. Do not forget to use italics for the word “Keywords.
Sample of Abstract for APA Style Paper

APA Table of Contents

There are 2 basic types of outlines for you to choose (unless your tutor gives you a template)

Simple outline (either alphanumeric or decimal)

Example of alphanumeric outline

Sample of alphanumeric outline in APA format

Example of decimal outline

Sample of decimal outline in APA format

Example of full sentence outline

Sample of full sentence outline for APA Style Paper

APA Headings

Level 1 Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase

Level 2 Left-aligned, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase

Level 3 indented, bold, lowercase heading with a period. Begin your text after the period

Level 4 indented, bold, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin your text after the period.

Level 5 indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin your text after the period.

APA Reference List

The reference list is inserted at the end of your paper; any source that you use needs to be included in the reference page and cited in the text.

Indent all lines after the first line in the entry (hanging indent); the lines should be indented one-half inch (1.27 cm) from the left margin of your paper.

  • Do not forget to invert authors’ names: Last Name, Initials. Example: Cage, D. C.
  • The reference list in APA is always alphabetized by the first word in the reference entry (from A to Z).
  • When alphabetizing titles or group names as authors, go by the first significant word (disregard a, an, the, etc.)
  • Do not include the abbreviation for the group author. Instead, spell out the full name of the group.

Correct reference entry:

American Psychological Association. (2011). Dollars and sense: Talking to your children about the economy. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx

Incorrect reference entry:

American Psychological Association (APA). (2011). Dollars and sense: Talking to your children about the economy. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx

  • Journal titles are always presented in full and capitalized:

Example: Archives of General Psychiatry

  • Do not alter the journal’s name:

Example: JAMA Psychiatry (NOT Jama Psychiatry).

Sample of Reference List for APA Style Paper

APA Reference List Examples

Citing Books in APA

One author

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Drewett, P. (2012). Field archaeology: An introduction. London, England: UCL Press.

Note:

  • Locations in the U.S.: City, 2-letter State Abbreviation.
  • Locations outside the US: City, Country.
  • Provide the name of the publisher after a colon, excluding Co. and Inc., which are not necessary for the identification of the publisher. However, do not omit the words Books and Press.

Two authors

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Greene, J., & Scott, D. (2004). Finding sand creek. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Three to five authors

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

McNeil, A. J., Frey, R., & Embrechts, P. (2015). Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Six or seven authors

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Bexby, C., Nigel, E., Smith, K., Rodgers, G. A., Williams, H., & Robinson, J. (2005). Referencing and plagiarism: A complete guide. London, England: Sage Publications.

Multiple authors (more than seven authors)

Provide last names and initials for the first six authors of the work. Insert three ellipsis points after the name of the sixth author, followed by the last author’s name.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., … Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Mehrer, M., Flatman, J., Flemming, N., Baxter, J., Orser, C., Wescot, K., … Wescott, K. (2006). GIS and archaeological site location modeling. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

Corporate/organization author

When the author and the publisher are the same, use the word “Author” instead of a publisher’s name.

Structure:

Organization Name. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Ministry of Health. (2008). Future directions for eating disorders services in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Unknown author

Structure:

Book title: Subtitle. (Year). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Alluvial archaeology in Europe. (2009). New York, NY: Routledge.

Two or more works by the same author

Works by the same author are arranged chronologically by year of publication. The earliest years come first.

Malhotra, Y. (2012). Knowledge management and virtual organizations. Naperville, IL: SAGE.

Malhotra, Y. (2014). Managing organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Two or more works by the same author, same year

According to APA style, works by the same author and with the same publication date are listed alphabetically by the title (disregarding articles). Add a, b, c … to publication year to distinguish citations.

Gabarro, J. (2011a). Criminal justice organizations: Administration and management. Reston, VA: Routledge.

Gabarro, J. (2011b). Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Edited book, no author

In an APA reference to an edited book with no author, move the editor name to the author position and follow it with the parenthetical abbreviation (Ed.) for one editor or (Eds.) for multiple editors.

Structure:

Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Eds.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Palenchar, M., & Greenwald, H. (Eds.). (2009). The management of organizations: Responsibility for performance. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited book with an author/authors

When citing an edited source in APA, place the editor’s initials and last name immediately after the book’s title, followed by the parenthetical abbreviation (Ed.) for one editor or (Eds.) for multiple editors.

Structure:

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name (Ed.). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name & Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name (Eds.). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Calfee, M. (2011). Strategic issues management: A systems and human resources approach. K. V. Emory (Ed.). Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Author with a translator

In a reference to a translated book, place the name(s) of the translator(s) immediately after the book’s title, add the abbreviation Trans., and enclose in parentheses.

Structure:

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Translator’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name, Trans.). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Translator’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name &  Translator’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name, Trans.). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

If the book is republished, provide both publishing dates.

Example:

Leary, P. (2009). Metaphors in the history of psychology. (A. W. Burt & F. L. Kernberg, Trans.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1921).

Note:

  • APA in-text citation of a republished source also includes both publishing dates. Example: Leary (1921/2009).

Different editions

Include information about the edition in parentheses immediately after the title.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (1st/2nd/3rd/#th ed.). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Shotton, M. L., & Schiraldi, G. (2016). The need for revision (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: Dover.

Chapter in an edited book

When citing a chapter in an edited book, do not invert the editors’ names and do not place them in the author position. The editors’ names are preceded by the word In and followed by the parenthetical abbreviation (Ed.) for one editor or (Eds.) for several editors.

Note: if an editorial board consists of more than 3 members, include the name of the lead editor and follow it by et al.

Structure:

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. In Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. #–#). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. In Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name et al. (Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. #–#). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Wiener, P. (2013). Gender issues across the globe. In A. A. Krugman & F. D. Kempe (Eds.), Gender identity and gender politics (pp. 134–146). Frankfurt, Germany: Springer.

Multivolume work

Enclose information about volume number(s) in parentheses immediately after the book’s title.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Vols. #–#). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Haybron, D. M. (2011). Perspectives on Piaget’s theory (Vols. 1–4). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Encyclopedia/dictionary

Structure:

Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Vols. #–#). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Graham, T. (Ed.). (2009). Encyclopedia of psychology: The great discoveries (Vols. 1–3). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword

Provide the names of the authors of the book and follow the date of the book’s publishing with the word Foreword (or Introduction, Preface, Afterword). Add the page numbers after the book’s title.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Foreword (or Introduction, Preface, Afterword). Book title: Subtitle (pp. #–#). Place of publication, Country or 2-letter postal code: Publisher.

Example:

Brooks, G. (2013). Introduction. Consequences of government spending (pp. 3–11). Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang.

Online Books

Provide the version of your e-book in [ ].

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle [E-book version]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Taubman, M. (2015). The psychoanalytic vision: The experiencing subject, transcendence and the therapeutic process [EBSCO NetLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

E-Book

When citing an eBook in APA, keep in mind that it may be retrieved from a personal website, a self-publishing website, or provided in an audio form. If it must be purchased, write “Available from”.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Available from http://xxxxx

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Examples:

Kopf, R. (2013). Low blood pressure—Hypotension treated with homeopathy and Schuessler salts (homeopathic cell salts). Available from https://www.bookrix.com/_ebook-robert-kopf-low-blood-pressure-hypotension-treated-with-homeopathy-and-schuessler-salts-homeopathic/

Haggard, H. (2014). The brethren. Retrieved from https://www.bookrix.com/_ebook-h-rider-haggard-the-brethren-20/

Chapter in an online book or web document

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. In Book title: Subtitle (Chapter #). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

National Research Center. (1997). How teachers teach: Specific methods. In Science teaching reconsidered: A handbook (Chapter 2). Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/read/5287/chapter/3

Online encyclopedia/dictionary

Structure:

Chapter title: Subtitle. (Year). In Book title: Subtitle. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Kashmiri Shaiva philosophy. (n.d.). In Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/kashmiri/[/citation_1_25]

Citing Articles in Periodicals in APA

Scholarly journal article

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages.

Example:

Williams, P. (2014). Emotions and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(5), 8–11.

Magazine article

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of the article. Magazine Title, volume(number), pages–pages.

Example:

Columbus, L. (2016, March 16). Roundup of cloud computing forecasts and market estimates. Forbes Magazine, 215, 1–3.

Newspaper article

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, pp. #–#.

Example:

Gellman, B., & Nakashima, E. (2013, July 25). US spy agencies mounted 231 offensive cyber-operations in 2011, documents show. Washington Post, pp. C3–C4.

Letter to the editor in magazine

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of the article  [Letter to the editor]. Magazine Title, volume(number), pages–pages.

Example:

Jenkins, J. (2017, January). It’s time for the president to take responsibility for his words and actions [Letter to the editor]. The Washington Post, 233, 17.

Review article

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article  [Review of the book Book title: Subtitle, by Author’s initial Last name]. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages.

Example:

Raab, J. (2014). Extending our knowledge on network governance [Review of the book Uniting diverse organizations: Managing goal-oriented advocacy networks, by A. Saz-Carranza]. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24(2), 1–4.

Abstract

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article  [Abstract]. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages.

Example:

Schürch, R., Ratnieks, F. L., Samuelson, E. E., & Couvillon, M. J. (2016). Dancing to her own beat: Honey bee foragers communicate via individually calibrated waggle dances [Abstract]. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(9), 1287–1289.

Article in an online journal (DOI)

According to the 6th edition of the APA Style Guide, it is advisable to provide a DOI of an article (digital object identifier, which is usually stated in article information section) if it is available. There are two formats of doi that you can choose from:

  1. doi:0000000/000000000000
  2. http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages. doi:0000000/000000000000

Example:

Baldwin, D. S., Anderson, I. M., & Nutt, D. J. (2014). Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(5), 403–439. doi:10.1177/0269881114525674

Article in an online journal (without DOI)

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Round, J. (2015). Apocatastasis: Redefining tropes of the Apocalypse in Neil Gaiman and Dave Mckean’s Signal to Noise. International Online Journal of Comic Art, 15. Retrieved from http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/26013/

Online newspaper / magazine article

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of the article. Newspaper/Magazine Title. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Tuchman, P. (2017, January 27). How do you sell a work of art built into the earth? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/27/arts/design/robert-smithson-earthwork-art.html?smid=pl-share&_r=0

Online book review

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article  [Review of the book Book title: Subtitle, by Author’s initial Last name]. Journal Title, volume(number), pages–pages. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Ascher, M. (2011). But I thought the earth belonged to the living [Review of the book Dead hands: A social history of wills, trusts, and inheritance law, by L. M. Friedman]. Texas Law Review, 89(2), 1149–1177. Retrieved from http://www.texaslrev.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Ascher-89-TLR-1149.pdf

Note:

  • Alternatively, provide a DOI instead a link.

Citing Dissertations and Theses in APA

Dissertation/thesis

Published dissertation / thesis available from a database service:

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)

Example:

Patel, B. (2016). A computational pipeline to uncover genomic regulatory regions that modulate the WNT signaling pathway (Undergraduate Thesis). Retrieved from Stanford Digital Dissertations. (PTN 3495214)

Published dissertation / thesis available from an institutional repository:

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis, University, city, country/state). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Patel, B. (2016). A computational pipeline to uncover genomic regulatory regions that modulate the WNT signaling pathway (Undergraduate Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA). Retrieved from https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/jz288sd3151

Unpublished dissertation / thesis:

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Example:

Patel, B. (2016). A computational pipeline to uncover genomic regulatory regions that modulate the WNT signaling pathway (Unpublished undergraduate thesis). Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Citing Online Lectures in APA

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Document title [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Examples:

Arnold, D. (2010). Functional analysis [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://www-users.math.umn.edu/~arnold/502.s97/functional.pdf

Pomije, B. (2011). Online shopping [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/pobr0702/online-shopping-presentation-10492184

Citing Websites in APA

Page from website

If a document has more than one page, provide a URL that will be linked to the entry page of this document.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Website page title. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Preston, J. (2017). John Preston on the Thorpe affair. Retrieved from https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/on-writing/why-i-write/2016/john-preston-on-the-thorpe-affair/

Page from website with unknown author

Structure:

Website page title. (Year). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

How sibling rivalry made Anne the ‘neglected’ Brontë. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/on-writing/times-and-life/2017/jan/how-sibling-rivalry-made-anne-the-other-bronte/

Blog

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Blogpost title [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Cush, A. (2016, August 17). You’ll never guess who’s angry about CNN “deceptively” editing a video of Sylville Smith’s sister [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://gawker.com/youll-never-guess-whos-angry-about-cnn-deceptively-ed-1785416442

Video or film

You may include Producer, Director, Sponsor, etc.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Director). (Year). Video/Film title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Glass, T. (Director). (2010). A Todd Glass Halloween: Animashups [Video file]. Retrieved from http://videopodcastnetwork.com/a-todd-glass-halloween/

Podcast/YouTube

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Date). Video title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Alcock, P. (2012, June 29). Electromagnetic levitation quadcopter [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCON4zfMzjU

Personal communication

Personal communication is not included in the reference list. Instead, when citing information from an email, cite the source of information in parentheses.

(K. Dawson, personal communication, April 24, 2010).

Citing Government Documents in APA

Government publication

Structure:

Government Body. (Year). Publication title (Publication No. xx–xx). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

United States Congress House Committee on Energy and Commerce. (2017). DOE for the 21st century: Science, environment, and national security missions (E&C Publication No. 114–119). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Publishing Office.

APA In-text Citations

In accordance with APA style rules, you only need to include the author’s name and year of publication when you refer to information from another scholarly work without quoting it directly. Remember that each source you cite in the body of the paper must have a corresponding entry on the list of references at the end of the paper.

APA In-Text Citations

Type

Examples

Short Quotations

Quotations that are less than 40 words fit into your main text, so there is no need to format them differently. If you use a short quote from another person’s work, you need to provide a page number in addition to the author’s name and publication year.

Uebelacker (2016) reports that “yoga-based practices may serve to regulate the autonomic nervous system” (p. 20).

According to Rehman (2016), “academic anxiety may make it difficult for students to concentrate on a range of tasks” (p. 109).

Long Quotations

Quotes that are 40 or more words long need to be placed separately from the main text into a block without quotation marks. Introduce the quote on a new line and then paste the quote on the next line, indenting it by 1/2 inch.

Uebelacker (2016) explains the following:

There are many different styles of hatha yoga – for example, Vinyasa or Iyengar. Hatha yoga classes can vary in numerous ways: some classes may involve flowing from one posture to another; others may be more focused on alignment and holding postures

Summary or Paraphrase

When you summarize or paraphrase a work, you mention the ideas of another author in your own words, without using direct quotations. In this case, you are not required to provide a page number, although it is encouraged by APA guidelines.

Summary: Uebelacker (2016) confirms that yoga can help to improve the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.

Paraphrase: There are adverse effects of anxiety on students, including poor concentration and academic performance (Rehman, 2016, p. 20).

Author named in a signal phrase

APA format requires the use of the word and instead of the ampersand before the last author’s name when citing a work by multiple authors in the text.

Example: Greene and Kernis (2012) argued that every individual involved in the process of creation of software is responsible for its quality.

Author not named in a signal phrase

Example: The framework based on the categorization of racial attributes does not take into account numerous individual differences between ethnic groups (Holland, 2010).

A work by two authors

Example: The use of sterilization accounts for 3.2 percent of birth control methods in Christian communities (Purnell & Paulanka, 2016).

A work by three to five authors

List all authors the first time a work is cited in the text. However, in subsequent citations, place only the name of the first author followed by et al. along with the year of publication.

Example: The limitations of the classification system preclude its use for the determination of specific health needs of ethnic minorities (Flatman, Flemming, & Drewett, 2009).

Example: Belonging to a racial group requires a differentiation between racial needs and those of the society at large (Flatman et al., 2009).

Six or more authors

Include only the name of the first author followed by et al. along with the year of publication.

Example: Baxter et al. (2014) argued that statewide statistics do not reflect real experiences of Muslims in the U.S.

Unknown author

When the source does not identify an author, cite it by the first few words of its title. The titles of books and periodicals have to be italicized, whereas titles of book chapters and articles must be placed inside quotation marks.

Example: Naturalism and the improvement of health-care outcomes are the main principles of the provision of biomedicine in the U.S. (Biomedicine and health care, 2015).

Example: The health-care services in Australia are based on the long-standing culture of nursing as well as national models of health and illness (“Health care approaches,” 2011).

Corporate author

If the name of the group first appears in parentheses (as in the second example below), put the abbreviation in brackets after it, followed by a comma and the year for the citation:

Example: The American Psychological Association (APA, 2011) suggested that parents talk to their children about family finances in age-appropriate ways.

Example: Children should learn about family finances in age-appropriate ways (American Psychological Association [APA], 2011).

In the reference list entry, do not include the abbreviation for the group author. Instead, spell out the full name of the group.

Authors with the same last name

Include first initials followed by the last names in order to distinguish between authors with the same last name.

Example: Religious and spiritual beliefs of Arab American Muslims significantly influence their health-care practices and health-seeking behaviors (M. Berndt, 2016; L. Berndt, 2016).

More than one work by the same author in the same year

Distinguish between works by the same author in the same year by including lowercase letters next to the year of publication in both in-text citations and reference list entries.

Example: Terminally ill patients find a source of strength in performing daily prayers and adhering to other religious duties described in their sacred texts such as Bible and Quran (Robbins, 2011a).

Indirect sources

Provide the author of the original source in a signal phrase and include a citation of the secondary source in parentheses. Note that only the secondary source has to be included in the APA reference list.

Example: Smith argues that “personalistic systems provide the most accurate representation of a patient’s identity” (as cited in Wescot, 2014, p. 213).

Sources without page numbers

When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.

Example: Pinker and Smith (2013) went so far as to argue “that Chinese cultures condone the use of invasive health care procedures” (para. 11).

Example: According to Smith (1997), … (Mind Over Matter section, 2018, para. 6).

Tables and Figures in APA

When you want to enhance your paper by providing visual data, you need to ensure that you format your tables and figures in accordance with APA guidelines:

  • Data that would require only one or two columns to present should be in written form, and thus, all tables should have three or more columns.
  • Figures that have one column should be between 2 and 3.25 inches in width; two-column figures should be between 4.25 and 6.875 inches.
  • Refer to figures in the text of the paper and include the figure after the end of the paragraph or in the appendix.
  • Tables and figures should be numbered in the same sequence in which they are presented in the text (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
  • If tables or figures are in the appendix, use capital letters and Arabic numbers to distinguish between them.
  • Label all of your figures and tables appropriately.
  • For tables, you need to write table number and title, capitalizing the key words (Table 1. Title of the Table).
  • If the table is adopted, include a regular APA in-text citation with a page number in brackets below the table.
  • For figures, write figure number and title in sentence case beneath the figure. Example: Figure 1. Title of the figure (Author, year, page).

Basic table format advised by APA editors:

Basic Components of a Table in APA Style Paper

Example of referencing a table in the text

As shown in Table 1, the outcomes of the participants in the control group did not differ from the results of the intervention group.

Example of a table in Appendix section

Table 1

Outcomes of Control Group versus Intervention Group

Success level

Control Group

Intervention Group

Low

20%

30%

Moderate

30%

35%

High

50%

35%

Note: Success level shows the percentage of participants who managed to overcome the disease.

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