Chicago (N-B) Citation Style (17th ed.)

The Chicago style, also known as the Turabian style after its author, is generally used for scholarly books. It can seem complicated, as it requires you to provide a shortened version of the reference at the bottom of the page using a footnote. However, a simplified version that uses parenthetical references like most other styles also exists. This guide, written by experienced professionals who have worked with many formats, is here to help you understand and use both versions correctly.

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This guide is developed in line with The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

What is Chicago Citation Style?

The Chicago style is mostly used for books and other long publications, where it is inconvenient to go to the end every time you want to check a reference. As such, it features a detailed reference to the source in a footnote at the bottom of the page as well as the page number (if applicable). However, if you want to write a shorter paper using the format, there is an Author-Date version that functions in the same manner as APA and Harvard. The footnote-based variation is somewhat similar to Oxford due to its use of the same basic principles.

The Importance of Citing and Referencing

You may wonder why correct referencing is generally considered so important, taking precedence over most other aspects. Here are some reasons why this is usually the case, even in essays that may not seem so serious or important:

  • Fundamentally, a person’s internal knowledge does not enable him or her to be at the forefront of research on his or her own. As such, references show that you know this and use others’ writings to help you.
  • You show that your information comes from a source that can be considered trustworthy and unbiased by various scholars who read your work. Many readers will frown upon the use of data from websites unless they belong to large-scale agencies.
  • To supplement this point, you have to format your references correctly due to the possibility that a wrongly formatted link will point to a nonexistent work. Referring to a fake work in the hopes that no one will check is a severe offense.
  • Most organizations disapprove of plagiarism strongly, and citations are intended to prevent it. The practice can lead to consequences up to and including expulsion from whatever organization you write for and permanent reputation damage.

General Principles of Chicago Style Formatting

  • Set 1″ (2.54 cm) margins on all sides.
  • Use Arial 12 pt. font (unless your instructions say otherwise).
  • All words except for articles and prepositions should be capitalized in book / article / periodical titles.
  • At the end of a paper written in compliance with the Chicago NB style, a full list of the sources cited in the paper appear in a separate section titled “Bibliography.”
  • Bibliographical entries are single-spaced and separated by an additional line space.

Chicago Title Page

The title is placed in the center of the page and written in UPPERCASE. Use a colon to separate the main title from the subtitle. The subtitle should be written below the title line.

Student’s name, tutor’s name, other class information, date, and year are located in the lower part of the page, written in sentence case.

There should be no page numbers on the title page or page with the table of contents/outline.

Sample of Title Page in Chicago Style

Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) Outline

There are 2 basic types of outlines for you to choose (unless your tutor gives you a template)

Simple outline (either alphanumeric or decimal)

Example of alphanumeric outline

Example of alphanumeric outline for Chicago Style Paper

Example of decimal outline

Example of decimal outline for Chicago Style Paper

Example of full sentence outline

Example of full sentence outline for Chicago Style Paper

Chicago Headings and Subheadings

Level 1: Centered, Bold, Each Word is Capitalized

Level 2: Centered, Non-Emphasized Font, Capitalized

Level 3: Flush Left, Bold, Capitalized

Level 4: Flush left, regular font, sentence case

Level 5: Placed at the beginning of the paragraph. Can be italicized or bold, sentence case. A period is used to separate the subheading and the rest of the text in the paragraph.

Chicago Footnotes

  1. A footnote should be created every time you use a source.
  2. Footnotes appear at the bottom (footer) part of a page.
  3. A footnote should be indented (left margin).
  4. All succeeding lines of this footnote should be formatted flush left.
  5. Chicago footnotes are single-spaced and separated by an additional line space.
  6. The first footnote for one source should present all the information related to this source (including the author’s full name, title of the source, and other relevant facts).
  7. If the source is cited more than once, subsequent footnotes should only include the last name of the author, a short title (if the original title consists of more than four words), and the number(s) of the cited page(s).
  8. Note that the page number is required in all short-form citations, even if it is the same as the previous entry.

Example:

1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

2. Lastname, Shortened Title of Book, page number.

  1. The use of ibid. is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations as per the 17th edition of CMOS (section 14.34). In footnotes citing the same source as the one preceding, use a shortened form of the citation, as in note 1 below. The title of the work may also be omitted if the previous note includes the title, as in note 2 below.

Example:

1. Harvey, “Modernity and Modernism,” 12.

2. Harvey, 13. [/citation_1_25_rev]

  1. Aside from ibid., Chicago style offers cross-referencing for multiple notes with repeated content (especially for longer, discursive notes). Remember: a note number should never appear out of order.

Example:

1. Michel Foucault, “The Means of Correct Training” in The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 188.

3. See note 1 above.

Sample of notes in Chicago Style Paper

Chicago Bibliography

Bibliography  is inserted at the end of your paper; any source that you use needs to be included in the bibliography section and cited in the text.

  • Indent all lines after the first line in the entry (hanging indent); the lines should be indented one-half inch (1.27 cm) from the left margin of your paper.
  • Invert authors’ names: Last Name, First Name.
    Example: Clifton, Lucille.
  • The reference list is always alphabetized by the first word in the reference entry (from A to Z).
  • When alphabetizing titles or group names as authors, go by the first significant word (disregard a, an, the)
  • All words except for articles and prepositions should be capitalized.
  • Italicization is applied to books and periodical journals’ titles.
  • Double quotation marks are used for the titles of articles and book chapters.
Chicago Style Bibliography Example

Chicago Bibliography Remark

If citing sacred texts, such as the Jewish or Christian scriptures, remember that they are usually mentioned in parenthetical citations or notes rather than in bibliographies. Such citations include book (in roman and usually abbreviated), chapter, and verse. A colon is used between chapter and verse. The traditional abbreviations use periods, but the shorter forms do not.

Examples:

Traditional abbreviations:
4. 1 Thess. 4:11, 5:2–5, 5:14.
5. Heb. 13:8, 13:12.
6. Gen. 25:19–36:43.

Shorter abbreviations:
7. 2 Sm 11:1–17, 11:26–27; 1 Chr 10:13–14.
8. Jo 5:9–12; Mt 26:2–5.

Chicago Book Citation

Single author

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Fetherston, Trevor. Becoming an Effective Teacher. Victoria: Thomson Learning, 2007.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1.First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Trevor Fetherston, Becoming an Effective Teacher (Victoria: Thomson Learning, 2007), 33.

Note:

  • If the city of publication may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation. (For countries not easily abbreviated, spell out the name.) When the publisher’s name includes the state name, the abbreviation is not needed.
  • In notes and bibliography, an initial The is omitted from a publisher’s name, as are such abbreviations as Inc., Ltd., or S.A. following a name. Co., & Co., Publishing Co., and the like are also omitted. Books is usually retained (Basic Books, Riverhead Books). The word Press can sometimes be omitted (for example, Pergamon Press and Ecco Press can be abbreviated to Pergamon and Ecco, but Free Press and New Press—whose names might be confusing without Press—must be given in full). Press should not be omitted from the name of a university press because the university itself may issue publications independent of its press. The word University may be abbreviated to Univ. if done consistently.

Examples:

Houghton Mifflin not Houghton Mifflin Co.
Little, Brown not Little, Brown & Co.
Macmillan not Macmillan Publishing Co.

Two or three authors

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Bohm, Andrew, and Dean Chaudri. Securing Australia’s Future: An Analysis of the International Education Markets in India. Sydney: IDP Education Australia, 2000.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Andrew Bohm and Dean Chaudri, Securing Australia’s Future: An Analysis of the International Education Markets in India (Sydney: IDP Education Australia, 2000), 33–55. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Four or more authors

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Bell, Michael, David Bush, Peter Nicholson, Dan O’Brien, and Thomas Tran. Universities Online: A Survey of Online Education and Services in Australia. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name et al., Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Michael Bell et al., Universities Online: A Survey of Online Education and Services in Australia (Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002), 33–55.

No author

If there are no authors or editors in the source, then cite the source by title. In footnotes and corresponding bibliographical entries, citations should begin with the title, omitting the element with the first name and last name. The citation looks like this:

Bibliography:

Structure:

Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies. Sydney: Hodder Headline Australia, 2003.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies (Sydney: Hodder Headline Australia, 2003), 24.

Multiple works by the same author

Using multiple works by the same author poses no challenge as all are to be cited in footnotes at the bottom of the page.

Fromm, Erich. The Fear of Freedom. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1942.

—. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987.

Footnote citation:

1. Erich Fromm, The Fear of Freedom (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1942), 33.

2. Erich Fromm, The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987), 42.

Different editions

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. # ed. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Kremer, John, and Aidan Moran. Pure Sport: Practical Sport Psychology. 2nd ed. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge, 2013.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name, Title of Book, # ed. (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. John Kremer and Aidan Moran, Pure Sport: Practical Sport Psychology, 2nd ed. (Hove, East Sussex: Routledge, 2013), 104. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • It may be required to further specify the place of publication. In this example, it is Hove, East Sussex. In most cases, it would be sufficient to simply list the city.

Editor or translator instead of author

Bibliography:

Structure:

Editor’s Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Smith, Jane, ed. The Stanford Handbook of Business and the American Press. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Editor’s First Name Last Name, ed. Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Jane Smith, ed., The Stanford Handbook of Business and the American Press (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 202. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • In a case with a translator, use trans. instead of ed.

Authors plus editors or translators

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Edited by Editor’s  First Name Last Name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Churchill, Winston. The Literary Works of Winston Churchill. Edited by Samuel Jackson. London: The Limited Editions Club, Inc., 1963.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name.Title of Book, ed. Editor’s  First Name Last Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Winston Churchill, The Literary Works of Winston Churchill, ed. Samuel Jackson (London: The Limited Editions Club, Inc., 1963), 12.[/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • Use phrases like edited by (ed.), compiled by (comp.) or translated by (trans.) when it is necessary.

Corporate author

Bibliography:

Structure:

Organization Name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

UNESCO. Worldwide Child Development Program 2000-2006. Zurich: UNESCO, 2000.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Organization Name.Title of Book  (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. UNESCO, Worldwide Child Development Program 2000-2006 (Zurich: UNESCO, 2000), 2.

Encyclopedia or dictionary

If there is a need to cite the encyclopedia multiple times on the same page, use s.vv. instead of s.v., and cite all the words after (sub verbo, “under the word”; pl. s.vv.).

Bibliography:

Structure:

Title of Encyclopedia. # ed. s.v. “Chapter Title”.

Examples:

The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. s.v. “Tradition”.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. s.vv. “Astronomy”, “Chemistry”,  “Tradition”, “Philosophy”.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Title of Encyclopedia, # ed., s.v. “Chapter Title”.

Example:

1. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Tradition.”

2. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.vv. “Astronomy”, “Chemistry”, “Tradition”, “Philosophy”. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • Since all words in a dictionary or encyclopedia are typically placed in alphabetical order, no page numbers are necessary. However, the words must also be arranged in alphabetical order.

Chapter in an edited book

Bibliography:

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Chapter Title” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s  First Name Last Name, pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Higgs, Malcolm. “Change and Its Leadership: The Role of Positive Emotions.” In The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work, edited by P. Alex Linley, Susan Harrington, and Nicola Garcea, 67–94. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Author’s First Name Last Name. “Chapter Title”, in Title of Book, ed. Editor’s First Name Last Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Example:

1. Malcolm Higgs, “Change and Its Leadership: The Role of Positive Emotions”, in The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work, ed. P. Alex Linley, Susan Harrington, and Nicola Garcea (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 67–72.

Chapter in a single-author book

Bibliography:

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Chapter Title” In Title of Book, pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Phibbs, Brendan. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle.” In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117–63. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.

Samples, John. “The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law.” Chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Author’s First Name Last Name. “Chapter Title”, in Title of Book, ed. Editor’s First Name Last Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Examples:

1. Brendan Phibbs, “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle,” in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987), 117–63.

2. John Samples, “The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law,” chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

E-book

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book, pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium/E-Library/URL.

Examples:

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.

Chan, Mimi. All the King’s Women. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2000. PDF e-book.

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

Footnote citations:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name. Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), chap. #/page, Medium/E-Library/URL.

Examples:

1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

2. Mimi Chan, All the King’s Women (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2000), PDF e-book, chap. 4. [/citation_1_25_rev]

3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

Note:

  • Including the format of the document is important, so it must be specified. The most common formats are PDF, Kindle, Microsoft Reader, Dejavu, etc. Pages in electronic versions of a book may differ from the original printed version. You can use chapters or sections of the book as locators.

Book consulted online

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book, pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI/URL.

Example:

Antokoletz, Elliot. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartók. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name. Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), DOI/URL.

Example:

1. Elliot Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartók (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

Note:

  • Alternatively, the URL may be included instead of a doi.

Preface, foreword, afterword, or introduction

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Preface / Foreword / Afterword / Introduction to Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Reamer, Frederic G. Foreword to Social Justice and Social Work, edited by Michael J. Austin, xiii–xv. Los Angeles: Sage, 2014. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, preface / foreword / afterword / introduction to Title of Book, ed. Editor’s First Name Last Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page.

Example:

1. Frederic G. Reamer, foreword to Social Justice and Social Work, ed. Michael J. Austin (Los Angeles: Sage, 2014), xiv.

Note:

  • Should the book have multiple publishers, it is not necessary to cite all of them. Include only the first one in both footnotes and bibliography.

Co-publishers

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. First Place of publication: First  Publisher; Second Place of publication: Second Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:

Doe, John, and Daniel K. F. Beaverfang. The Dead Sky Chronicles, Study Edition. 2 vols. New York: Brill; San-Francisco: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2005.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, Title of Book (First Place of publication: First  Publisher; Second Place of publication: Second Publisher, Year of publication), page numbers.

Example:

1. John Doe and Daniel K. F. Beaverfang, The Dead Sky Chronicles, Study Edition (New York: Brill; San-Francisco: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2005), 2:35.

Chicago Article Citation

Journal article

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages..

Example:

Davies, David. “From the Further Education Margins to the Higher Education Centre? Innovation in Continuing Education.” Education Training 39, no. 1 (1997): 4–13.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Article Title”, Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): page.

Example:

1. David Davies, “From the Further Education Margins to the Higher Education Centre? Innovation in Continuing Education”, Education Training 39, no. 1 (1997): 10.

Note:

  • When a journal uses issue numbers only, without volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title.

Example:

Beattie, J. M. “The Pattern of Crime in England, 1660–1800.” Past and Present, no. 62 (1974): 47–95.

  • When a month/season stands for volume and/or issue number, it becomes an indispensable element and should be therefore enclosed in reference; a comma follows the journal title and the date.

Example:

Saberhagen, Kelvin. “Lake Superior Beluga?” Sturgeon Review, Winter 1928, 21–45.

  • When page numbers immediately follow a volume number, separated only by a colon, no space follows the colon. However, when parenthetical information intervenes, a space follows the colon.

Examples:

Social Networks 14:213–29

Critical Inquiry 19 (Autumn): 164–85

  • When the page number follows an issue number, a comma—not a colon—should be used.

Example:

Diogenes, no. 25, 84–117.

Journal articles with more than four authors

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name. “Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages. [/citation_1_25]

Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, et al. “Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Article Title”, Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): page. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • You may indicate the month/season of publication in addition to the year, if available.

Journal article (no author)

Bibliography:

Structure:

“Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

“Effects Teacher Certification and Teacher Commitment on Teacher Performance.” International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 4, no. 11 (2017): 33–45.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. “Article Title”, Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): page.[/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. “Effects Teacher Certification and Teacher Commitment on Teacher Performance”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 4, no. 11 (2017): 36, 38, 39. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Newspaper article

Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry.

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Namel. “Chapter Title” Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Higgins, Marguerite. “Obesity Policy Will Benefit Trial Lawyers; Enables Fast-Food Lawsuits.” The Washington Times, December 22, 2010.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Article Title”, Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year, page.

Example:

1. Marguerite Higgins, “Obesity Policy Will Benefit Trial Lawyers; Enables Fast-Food Lawsuits,” The Washington Times, December 22, 2010, 3. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Newspaper article (no author)

Bibliography:

Structure:

“Article Title” Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

“Obesity Epidemic Expected to Cut Life Expectancy, Experts Say.” Chicago Tribune, June 5, 2012.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. “Article Title”, Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year, page. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. “Obesity Epidemic Expected to Cut Life Expectancy, Experts Say,” Chicago Tribune, June 5, 2012, 6. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Journal article consulted online

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages. DOI.

Example:

Cliff, Amy Fish. “’What Are We Doing Here’: Eastern Cherokee Civil Authorities and Sovereign Territorial Rights.” American Indian Quarterly 36, no. 2 (2013): 234–269. doi: /1d11d977-389e. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Article Title”, Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): page, DOI. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Amy Fish Cliff, “’What Are We Doing Here’: Eastern Cherokee Civil Authorities and Sovereign Territorial Rights,” American Indian Quarterly 36, no. 2 (2013): 234–269, doi: /1d11d977-389e. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • If there is no DOI, it is acceptable to use the URL in order to link the article to your work. If you possess both URL and DOI, always use the latter.

Full text from database (no author)

Bibliography:

Structure:

“Article Title” Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): pages. DOI.

Example:

“Higher Education in the Hi-Tech Age: Higher Education Leadership Forum.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 52, no. 16 (2005): 105–107. doi: /1001oi567. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. “Article Title”, Title of Periodical volume, no. # (Year): page, DOI.

Example:

1. “Higher Education in the Hi-Tech Age: Higher Education Leadership Forum,” The Chronicle of Higher Education 52, no. 16 (2005): 105–107, doi: /1001oi567.

Full text from newspaper, newswire (no author)

Bibliography:

Structure:

“Article Title” Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year. URL.

Example:

“Trump is Going to Ruin America.” BBC, January 17, 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/video_and_audio/headlines/389742289. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. “Article Title”, Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year. URL. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. “Trump is Going to Ruin America,” BBC, January 17, 2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/video_and_audio/headlines/389742289. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Online newspaper article

If you consulted the article online, include a URL (or DOI, if available) or the name of the database.

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title” Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year. URL/E-Library. [/citation_1_25]

Examples:

Glier, Ray. “Missed Plays Burn Atlanta; Falcons Have No Regrets after Rising from ‘Ground Zero’.” The Washington Post, February 1, 1999. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-574623.html?refid=easy_hf. [/citation_1_25]

Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Article Title”, Title of Periodical, Month Date, Year, URL/E-Library.

Examples:

1. Ray Glier, “Missed Plays Burn Atlanta; Falcons Have No Regrets after Rising from ‘Ground Zero’,” The Washington Post, February 1, 1999, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-574623.html?refid=easy_hf. [/citation_1_25_rev]

2. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Chicago Dissertation and Thesis Citation

Thesis or dissertation

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Dissertation Title” Degree statement., University, Year.

Example:

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Dissertation Title” (Degree statement., University, Year), page.

Example:

1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Chicago Lecture Citation

Course materials

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Lecture Title.” Lecture, University, Place, Month Date, Year.

Example:

Jackson, Sean. “The Basics of Cloud Computing.” Lecture, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, October 10, 2015.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Lecture Title” (lecture, University, Place, Month Date, Year).

Example:

1. Sean Jackson, “The Basics of Cloud Computing” (lecture, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, October 10, 2015). [/citation_1_25_rev]

Chicago Website Citation

Website

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Last modified Month Date, Year. URL. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

“Educational Products.” Educational Resources. Last modified November 3, 2011. http://www.edresources.com/products. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Page Title.” Website Title, last modified Month Date, Year, URL. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. “Educational Products,” Educational Resources, last modified November 3, 2011, http://www.edresources.com/.

Note:

  • For web sources, include the date of access or the date of last modification.

Web page (no date)

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Carpenter, John. “Alternative Cancer Treatments for Stage I, II and III Cancer Patients.” Cancer Tutor. Accessed January 25, 2017. https://www.cancertutor.com/ruleofthumb/.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Page Title.” Website Title, accessed Month Date, Year, URL. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. John Carpenter, “Alternative Cancer Treatments for Stage I, II and III Cancer Patients,” Cancer Tutor, accessed January 25, 2017, https://www.cancertutor.com/ruleofthumb/. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Image

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. Image Title. Digital image.Website Title. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.

Example:

Tesla Autopilot Function. Digital image. Wired. Accessed January 25, 2017. https://assets.wired.com/photos/w_860/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Telsa_Autopilot_TA.jpg.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, Image Title, digital image. Website Title, accessed Month Date, Year, URL. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Tesla Autopilot Function, digital image, Wired, accessed January 25, 2017, https://assets.wired.com/photos/w_860/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Telsa_Autopilot_TA.jpg. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Blog

Bibliography:

Structure:

Last Name, First Name. “Blog Post Title.” Website Title (blog), Month Date, Year. URL.

Example:

Middleton, Jane. “Southeast States Trivia Treasure Hunt.” Deceptively Educational (blog), March 13, 2015. http://deceptivelyeducational.blogspot.com/2015/03/southeast-states-trivia-treasure-hunt.html. [/citation_1_25]

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, “Blog Post Title”, Website Title (blog), Month Date, Year, URL. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Jane Middleton, “Southeast States Trivia Treasure Hunt,” Deceptively Educational (blog), March 13, 2015, http://deceptivelyeducational.blogspot.com/2015/03/southeast-states-trivia-treasure-hunt.html. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Films and video recordings

Bibliography:

Structure:

Film Title. Directed by First Name Last Name. Performed by First Name Last Name. Place of production: Distribution Company, Year. Medium. [/citation_1_25]

Example:

Titanic. Directed by James Cameron. Performed by Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures, 1997. DVD.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Film Title, dir. First Name Last Name, perf. First Name Last Name (Place of production: Distribution Company, Year), Medium. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Titanic, dir. James Cameron, perf. Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet (Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures, 1997), DVD. [/citation_1_25_rev]

YouTube video

Bibliography:

Structure:

“Video Title.” YouTube video, Length. Posted by Name. Month Date, Year. URL.

Example:

“U.S. System of Education—English Language Notes.” YouTube video, 3:14. Posted by JenniferESL. July 19, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ciiaPwhF0I.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. “Video Title”, YouTube video, Length, posted by Name. Month Date, Year. URL.

Example:

1. “U.S. System of Education—English Language Notes,” YouTube video, 3:14, posted by JenniferESL, July 19, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ciiaPwhF0I.

Chicago Government Report Citation

Government report

Bibliography:

Structure:

Organization Name. Government Report Title. Edited by First Name Last Name. [City, State]: Publisher, Year. [/citation_1_25]

Examples:

Canada. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. Learning Assessment Branch. The 1982 B.C Science Assessment. Edited by Hugh Taylor. [Victoria, B.C.]: Queen’s Printer, 1982.

Plant, P. Geoffrey. Access and Excellence: The Campus 2020 Plan for British Columbia’s Post-Secondary Education System. [Victoria, B.C.]: Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. Organization Name, Government Report Title, edited by First Name Last Name. [City, State]: Publisher, Year. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Examples:

1. Canada, British Columbia, Ministry of Education. Learning Assessment Branch, The 1982 B.C Science Assessment, edited by Hugh Taylor. [Victoria, B.C.]: Queen’s Printer, 1982. [/citation_1_25_rev]

2. Geoffrey P. Plant, Access and Excellence: The Campus 2020 Plan for British Columbia’s Post-Secondary Education System, [Victoria, B.C.]: Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Chicago Secondary Sources Citation

Personal communication

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, e-mail message, Month Date, Year. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Jared Jones, e-mail message, July 4, 2015. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Note:

  • Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

Books

No bibliographic citation is necessary.

Footnote citation:

Structure:

1. First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number, quoted in First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number. [/citation_1_25_rev]

Example:

1. Jim Bean, A Book about Nothing, (New York: Elsevier, 2001), 37, quoted in Alexander Schultz, Modern Nihilism (London: Routledge, 2007), 5.

Note:

  • The 17th edition of Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources in academic research. It is to be avoided at all times. Should the original source not be available in any possible way, it is recommended to use the “quoted in” format for the footnote.

Tables and Figures in Chicago Style

The Chicago citation style demands that figures and tables be treated slightly differently, though overall, their use is similar. You should place both types of object in the paper’s body, between separate lines of text. However, while you are free to put tables wherever they are most appropriate, you have to present figures immediately after they have been mentioned for the first time (see figure 1).

Figure of Glass World

Fig. 1: Glass World.1

Footnote citation:

1. Glass World, digital image, EnvironmentalScience, accessed August 18, 2019, https://www.environmentalscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NEPA-CEQA-640×425.jpeg

You introduce a figure by inserting a footnote below, formatted the same way as though it is a standard footnote citation. With tables, you insert the table number and a short description of the contents above the object and add “Source:” with a footnote below. Note that both the title and the source line should be single-spaced, regardless of how you format the rest of the paper. Images are not mentioned in the Bibliography.

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