During exercise, the human body produces heat, and the core temperature may be increased up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit or 40 degrees Celsius. Metabolic energy speedily increases, as well as the number of muscle contractions. Such physiological change can lead to serious health complications or even fatal outcomes. Therefore, in the body, there are several strong mechanisms associated with heat loss that is activated as soon as an excessive temperature rise is observed, and thermoregulation is one of them.
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In the brain, the hypothalamus performs the function of a thermostat and controls the temperature in the body. As soon as increased energy causes high temperature, the body sends a message to the hypothalamus and receives an appropriate response. In many sources and discussions, thermoregulation is introduced as a natural cooling system of the body. The central nervous system is able to measure temperature and activate the necessary hormones to keep the body stable despite the environment.
During exercise, thermoregulation occurs in four processes, including radiation (electromagnetic waves transfer heat), convection (air/water movement provokes temperature changes), conduction (physical contact transfers heat), and evaporation (heat is released as a gas through sweating). All these thermoregulation mechanisms aim to return the body to homeostasis, a normal equilibrium of physiological processes.
As a rule, physical activities result in sweating and losing water in large amounts. Therefore, it is extremely important to add some fluids during exercise. Such improvements can stabilize the work of the circulatory system, the heart, and the muscle movement, which results in body heat reduction and control. In general, the principles of thermoregulation during exercises are not complex, and every individual has enough opportunities to contribute to the normalization of temperature in the body.