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Seed Germination Experiment: Results and Discussion

The results indicated that the number of germinated seeds differed according to the concentration of solutions. 0625M CaCl2 germinated quickly on the second day and attained the mean of about 10 germinated seeds on [...]

Reproductive Isolation and Its Potential Effects

Reproductive isolation pertains to the fact that in case a population of the same species is separated into two parts and they are not able to breed with one another, genetic makeup will change according [...]

Marine Algae Associated Bacteria as Antioxidants

The antinociceptive activity analysis involved comparing the reaction time of mice treated with the extracts and the controls. The authors conclude that the isolation and characterization of the bioactive principles from the potent strains could [...]

Glowing in Animals’ Eyes

It reflects a portion of the light entering the eye after it is cast on the retina, which is the area where the image of what is before an animal is constructed to be further [...]

Medical Microbiology Interests

This is in regard to the nature of cancer cells in the sense that some develop as a result of genetic mutations.

Vegetation Monitoring From Space

Remote sensing also helps in the determination of the distribution of the existing vegetation cover within a particular locality. In this paper, the author seeks to provide an overview of the use of remote sensing [...]

Microbiologist as a Career in Bioscience

Moreover, I believe that in this way I can help people by making discoveries that can be used in medicine, agriculture, food production. This experience can help me in the future especially when I will [...]

Reverse Mutation Concept in Cancer Biology

The hybridization of phage and the Alu probe will point to the presence of the human mutagen in the cell. Particularly, the application of the KIF2C protein will have to be considered to identify the [...]

Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterias

Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the invasive and adherence abilities of S.typhimurium relative to E.coli. In the comparative study of invasiveness and adherence of E.coli and S.typhimurium, the study used INT407 [...]

Environmental Management: Ice Storm and Beetle Outbreaks

Thus, in their article, "The Effects of a Large-Scale Ice Storm Event on the Drivers of Bark Beetle Outbreaks and Associated Management Practices," Groot, Ogris, and Kobler aim to research the patterns of insect outbreaks [...]

Providencia Rettgeri as an Unknown Microorganism

The common laboratory techniques employed in the identification of bacteria are the morphology of colonies and cells, biochemical reactions, physiological mechanisms, and genetic characteristics.

Respiratory Tract Infections Under Investigations

RTIs are prevalent among the elderly due to the existence of chronic conditions and deterioration of health. Acute sinusitis and bronchitis are some of the most common cases of RTIs that contribute to the abuse [...]

Proteomic Analysis Technique

The objective of the study was to compare the nature of proteins in egg yolks of chicken, duck, and quail, which are three common species of poultry.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Helicobacter Pylori

Therefore, the aim of the essay is to examine the problem of resistance in H.pylori and describes its mechanisms. Thus, the analysis of resistance in H.pylori shows that the determination of the individual, local, and [...]

Gekkonidae: Biological Characteristics

A comprehensive description of the family peculiarities started with the analysis of general characteristics of lizards and the features they obtained throughout the evolution.

Soil Impact on the Growth of Plants

The aim of this experiment was to determine the impact of various types of soil as well as the effect of an energy drink on plant growth. The growth of the plants was measured as [...]

Multiplex Point-of-Care Diagnostic Platform Development

Greening is among the major threats which can negatively impact the citrus industry through decreasing product quality and quantity and thus increasing their price due to the necessity to plan time- and cost-consuming strategies to [...]

DNA in Action: Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Management

The researchers in the article carried out an analysis entailing a total sum of 9300 salmon fish species. The latter was followed by mixed stock samples in the lower region of Fraser River and test [...]

Cellular Fluid and Regulatory Mechanisms

This paper describes the components of a cellular fluid and regulatory mechanisms for achieving electrolyte balance in the ICF and ECF. The ICF comprises the fluid within the cells, and it is the primary constituent [...]

Cell Organelles, Their Functions, and Disease

Mitochondria-associated membrane, a specialized sub-group of the ER has specific lipid and protein composition and is involved in cross-communication with mitochondria.

Fertility Issues and Sexual Positions

Even if a woman is menstruating, which is indicative of their potential to get pregnant, abnormal hormone levels within a woman's body can cause issues when it comes to the density of the uterine wall [...]

Disease Transmission, Pathogens, and Safety

This category also includes the transmission from a woman to a fetus in her uterus and the transmission from one part of the body of an individual to another part.

Microbiology Lab: Helminths

The purpose of this experiment is to observe the characteristics of eukaryotic pathogens, including protozoa, fungi and helminthes; to be able to distinguish between different organisms, and apply the results in the field of microbiology. [...]

Fungi: Characteristics and Groups

Chytridiomycota is a division of the kingdom Fungi. This class is often called higher fungi because of their complicated structure and other unique characteristics that differ them from other representatives of the kingdom.

Dutch Elm Disease, Its Symptoms and Prevention

The spreading of the produced hyphae enhances the tree to produce plugs that play a significant role in cutting off the xylem vessels which are responsible for movement of water within the plant."The cutting of [...]

Biodiversity, Its Evolutionary and Genetic Reasons

The occurrence of natural selection is hinged on the hypothesis that offspring inherit their characteristics from their parents in the form of genes and that members of any particular population must have some inconsiderable disparity [...]

Sunflower Plant Growth with Minimal Water Requirements

During the growth of the plant, water is necessary for transpiration and evaporation. The objective of the study was to determine whether plant type affects growth rate when using minimum water requirements.

Plant Cell Physiology and Its Processes

Cell physiology is the study of the functions of the cell structures. The function of controlling movement of substances in and out of the cell is known as the physiological process.

Male Mating Success and Courtship Modalities

For this reason, this review focuses on the provision of more insights on the subject of sex and evolution with a specific focus on the explanation of female preference for multi-modal courtship and why the [...]

Visual Mechanism and Control in Humans and Animals

To appreciate the historical context of the publication of the article by Goodlade and Milner, it is prudent to discuss what was happening before and in the early 1990s in the field of visual perception.

Lab Report: Caenorhabditis Elegans

Studies involving the manipulation of the unc-22 gene including the introduction of mutations and silencing various alleles of the gene have helped elucidate the structure and function of the gene, which is beneficial to the [...]

Brain-to-Brain Interface Experiment

It can be argued that the brain-to-brain interface experiment described in the study was a sophisticated variant of the knee jerk reflex.

Marine Life in United Arab Emirates

This report analyses the marine life in the UAE, covering detailed information about the various species of animals found in the region and their adaptation to the unique environment.

Philip Henry Gosse’s Biography and Contribution

He went to school in Poole where he was able to gain a lot of experiences and skills. Henry Gosse delivered a clear message to his people concerning flora and fauna that existed in the [...]

Biomimicry’ Process and Importance

Biomimicry arefers to the process of imitating the products and processes of nature'. Scientists have also used nature to solve the problem of energy.

Pollutants Effects on Cellular Respiration Rate

Therefore, the purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effects of pollutants on the cellular respiration rate. Moreover, the hypothesis that the presence of a pollutant harms the rate of respiration was investigated by [...]

Myths about the Brain Functionality

The brain is one of the most fascinating organs of the human body. In conclusion, the beliefs about ten percent of our brain left and right-brained people or other similar statements are pure myths that [...]

Natural Sciences: Insects

The number of insects in the world exceeds the number of all the other species taken together. This way, the reduction of the number of pollinating insects will lead to the decline of productivity of [...]

Animals Importance for Human Beings

The following are some of the reasons that make animals matter to human beings. The other significance of animals to human beings is that they are a source of food.

Biochemical Cycles

Carbon is also an important element for the living organisms; hence the carbon cycle which is a gaseous cycle takes place to recycle the carbon and make it available for the living organisms.

Biodiversity Issues

Genetic diversity is a term used to refer to the dissimilitude of organisms of the same species. Species diversity is used to refer to dissimilitude of organisms in a given region.

Bio Diversity and Future of Our World

For the resources of the world to be maintained, biodiversity has to be present. It is upon ourselves to determine the kind of a world we want to live in.

Drug Mescaline Peyote

Peyote is believed to cause some people to hallucinate and in deed the Native American church used it while meditating. In conclusion, the use of peyote is illegal in U.S.because this plant has similar effects [...]

The Diffusion of a Cell

The study achieved this goal through the use of Single Particle Tracking that entails observing the diffusion of a particle in the cell.

Genetic experimentation and development

In fact, the proponents of cloning assert that it would provide the parents with the opportunity of determining the attributes as well as the genetic features of the offspring.

A Study of “Escherichia Coli”

The division of bacterial cells is focused on the study of the force that makes the cell separate into two, paying specific attention to FtsZ and the division ring Z-ring.

Cell Membranes

When cells are contained in solutes with a majority of big molecules, the rate of permeability in cell membranes will automatically decrease.

In Vitro Fertilization and Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis

However, it is important for couples that decide to use these assisted reproductive methods to understand the risks, benefits, complications and challenges of the procedures and to decide whether the risks are worth taking so [...]

The Cane Toad

The cane toad multiplied rapidly in a short span of time compared to other species in the same habitat. The major reason for introduction of the cane toad was to control the French Cane Beetle [...]

Karyotype results

The severity of potential malformations to the foetus is another important factor as it would determine the survival rates of the foetus.

Concept of Bioethics in Society

The classical assumption in the discipline of bioethics is that the field is concerned with the dilemma of determining the most ethically appropriate action in the healthcare setting.

Inventions and Discoveries

The paper will look into the history of the discoveries and their effects in the development of the human well beings as well as the enhancement of the human understanding of the surrounding nature in [...]

History Of Biotechnology

In the course of the First World War, the processes of fermentation were set up in order to carry out production of acetone from the solvents of paints as well as starch to be used [...]

Pets and people

In this case, the dogs can have the aspect of love in the same manner as human beings. However, the inner calm and satisfaction that are depicted by dogs are similar to that of humans.

The Melanin Theory

The architects of this theory believe that white people are mutants and that whiter skin is a form of albinism with the likes of Wade Nobles opining that "Blacks are fully human because of their [...]

Evolution of Predator and Prey Pairings

Given the fact that prey and predator pairings threatens the survival of the prey there are other external factors that contribute to the elimination of the prey species.

Vertical Stratification

Due to the differences in the terrestrial and aquatic environments, numerous contrasts between the two environments can be observed. Another major difference between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem is their level and ability to support [...]

Exotic Species Threat

The main reason exotic species normally pose a greater threat to native species in the island is because island species might have evolved in the absence of strong predators and competitors.

Earth Atmospheric Evolution

It is believed that the different geological evolutions of the earth and the atmosphere have come up with very new species of animals following a transformation of the then existing animals, as well as extinction [...]

Types of Tress in Alaska

The plant further branches in a pattern that extends to the ground held by a bark that is smooth dark and scary. As a conifer, the tree is evergreen and typically grows to about 15 [...]

Cell Culture Technique

This situation of cell line cross contamination could be attributed to constant necessity in the protocol for cell culture viability and identification.

Transpiration Process in Plants

Initially, the roots absorb water by the process of osmosis due to the variation in the concentration of the water level between the soil and roots.


The basic difference between domesticated plants and animals from their counterpart wild species is that they are produced by human activities to attain particular characteristics and are adjusted to the conditions of constant care from [...]

Bioinformatics: Pathogen Profiling Efforts

Accordingly, a biosurveillance approach that makes use of microbial profiling is likely to reduce the cost of epidemic control, treatment and aversion in the near future.

The Right Brain versus the Left Brain

The detailed analysis of these ways of learning elucidates the differences in learning patterns among students based on the side of the brain that is dominant. It is clear that the left hemisphere of the [...]

Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants

For example, the Cedarwood plant native to Asia and the Americas is used topically in the treatment of skin diseases such as warts and psoriasis.

Evidence for ancient endosymbiosis

The subsequent taxon has been efficient and has greatly changed the development of life by producing endosymbionts important for the appearance of eukaryotes and the evident genome transit into them indicate a common evolutionary basis [...]

Bioremediation Technology

The organisms are introduced on the site of contamination to degrade the contaminants. The contaminants reduce the fertility of the soil.

Pros and Cons of Use of Pesticides

Use of DDT and other pesticides may cause harm to the ecosystem if not well used and thus it is advisable to approach this issue with more precaution.

The Spiders Relationship

A report released by the University of Cincinnati indicates that when female spiders are experiencing starvation for a short-period of time, they are less receptive to the act of mating.

The Human Cloning Debates

Nonetheless, the scientists opposed reproductive cloning claiming that the practice undermines the uniqueness of humankind and that it is unethical to put the lives of clones in a condition of being susceptible to harm or [...]

Vegetation Sampling – Barton Road

The number of tragopogon plants is also higher in plots that were treated with high nitrogen as compared to those with low nitrogen.

Grass and its importance

His book titled "Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals" discusses several aspects of nature and focuses specifically on grass and what it is for animals and different people.

The Nervous System

The PNS consists of the nerves that link the CNS to receptors and effectors in the body. The nerve cell The nerve cells play a critical role in the body system.

Biochemistry Dogmas and Their Impacts on Biotechnology

Unlike in the past, people have seen the importance of studying life sciences, and with the support from private and public sectors, the number of students enrolling in life science courses is on the rise. [...]

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cite that of the 25% to 30% of people colonized by staphylococcus bacteria, only 2% has MRSA. Chang attributes colonization to the existing equilibrium between the presence of [...]

Introduction to botany

At the early growth stages of the plant, the nodes distance is very small and the stem remains at the base of the plant.

How the Brain Lies

In most cases, the victim of the lie might ignore the clues to the lie in fear of the consequences of the lie being revealed, hence accepting to be lied to.

The Biological Basis of Sleep

The authors suggest that it needs more accurate measurement of sleep and wake pattern by the use of the electrooculogram, the recording of the movement of the eye, EEG and electromyogram, the recording of the [...]

The Pesticide Problem and Proposed Solution

Dose response The impacts of the mosquito hazard have called for a measure to use a pesticide to control the breeding and the ultimate population of the mosquitoes in the city.

Falling in Love as Part of Natural Selection

Further, the science of love exhibits to us that falling in love is in fact ingrained in our physiological makeup and as a natural component of our being, we cannot help to fall in love [...]

Essentials of Biodiversity

At the same time, the knowledge and a more informed understanding of the whole concept of biodiversity gives us the power to intervene in the event that we are faced by the loss of biodiversity, [...]

An Experiment on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

While observing the interplay of MSa phages and Staphylococcus aureus, I paid attention to possible growth suppression effects or signs of lysis, in other words, the dissolution of a cell.

Vaquita – An Endangered Species

The vaquita looks like a curved stocky porpoise, and it is the smallest of all the porpoises in the world. This is a matter of concern and ought to be investigated if the survival of [...]

Vaquita – Endangered Species

The vaquita looks like a star curved stocky porpoise and it is the smallest of all the porpoises in the world.

Whether or not Human Cloning Should be Allowed

One of the benefits of cloning is the fact that it is able to provide children to people with fertility problems. It is no wonder that the process of cloning cells to form embryos is [...]

Algae Interaction

The objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis: there exists no competition between the algae species - Closterium and Micrasterias.
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