Advantages of nanobiotechnology
While the world believes that nanobiotechnology is likely to shape future technology, it is important to consider both sides of the technology and have an analysis of its pros and cons. This segment enumerates some of the major advantages of the technology as a possible path for the world to take. According to scientific research, there are several companies that have great concern for the therapeutic application of nanobiotechnology.
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This mainly concerns the antioxidant properties of nanomaterials, leading to the restricting of fullerenes to produce new antioxidants. With this development, it is believed that the new antioxidants will be quite useful in the treatment and management of neurodegenerative diseases, which principally emanate from oxidant injuries (Maharana et al. 147).
Additionally, nanomaterials have been considered for the treatment of cancer. In recent days, nanoscientists have engaged in processes aimed at developing therapies utilizing “cooking tumors” principles (Maharana et al. 147). When using antibody-coated iron nanoparticles, the antigens attached to the tumor before the magnetic field is repeatedly applied. As a result, the particles heat and “cook” the tumors starting from the inside. Although this has not been well explored, many world scientists believe that the adoption of this approach would boost the fight against cancer in the world today (De Villiers, Aramwit, and Kwon 165).
Another benefit of nanobiotechnology in medicine is in drug delivery. Normally, an efficient drug delivery system is supposed to increase bioavailability and encapsulate the drug to eliminate side effects (Maharana et al. 145). Many pharmaceutical companies faced with patent expiry threats are looking into possible ways of delivering their drugs through nanobiotechnology. Moreover, several drugs have been developed using this technology and registered improved drug solubility ratio.
An example of such a drug is Merck’s Emend (Maharana et al. 145). In terms of encapsulation of drugs, several procedures have already been successful, utilizing polyamine acid nanoparticles. Of great significance has been in the manufacture of “Smart Drugs” which have amazing benefits when rated against those that do not appreciate this technology. For instance, smart drugs are known to have no side effects, a major problem that has been registered in the field of traditional medicine (Karkare 166).
Furthermore, nanobiotechnology has found application in tissue engineering and reconstruction. Nanobiotechnology can be coupled with biomaterials in the generation of scaffolds for tissue reconstruction which can be used in the regulation of cell behavior. Materials like nanofabricated scaffolds have been known to regulate fundamental processes like cell migration and angiogenesis (Maharana et al. 147).
By using nanopatterning and micropatterning, it is possible to demonstrate the influence of cell shape on cell behavior. Based on this development, nanopatterning can be utilized when directing cell behavior to stimulate the differentiation of stem cells. This would allow the generation of important cell types and regulate their behavior especially in scaffolds that are produced in three-dimensions. It, therefore, follows that nanobiotechnology can be used in selective cell differentiation and islet transplantation (Maharana et al. 147).
Nanobiotechnology is also important in imaging and disease diagnostic (Maharana et al. 146). Scientists are considering the use of this technology in major testing exercises in laboratories. In addition, the development of “quantum dots” is essential in animal imaging by the use of nanoparticles. This has found immense application in cultured cells and tissues (Hlupić 5).
Disadvantages of nanobiotechnology
Besides overwhelming and countless nanobiotechnology merits which have been discussed above, this technology has its fair share of disadvantages. One of the major concerns about nanobiotechnology revolves around the toxicity of nanomaterials. Due to their minute sizes, nanoparticles can enter the human body through several parts. Accidental contact with these particles commonly occurs during production processes.
As such, some of the major body parts like the skin, lungs, and the Gastric Intestinal Tract get affected. Depending on the level of contact, these particles may be trans-located to other vital organs of the human body through the bloodstream (Maharana et al. 147). Cells that are exposed to nanoparticles for a long time may lead to abnormal deviation of gene expression, apoptosis, idiosyncrasy, and cytotoxicity. If they remain in the body, these particles are likely to cause granuloma in the intestines and skin and dangerous fibrosis in the lungs, resulting in breathing problems. Research further indicates that sixty seconds of inhaling nanoparticles are enough to cause serious and permanent lung damage (Davies 1).
Another disadvantage of nanobiotechnology is depreciation and lack of own information in research. There is the considerable impact in creating materials, especially when measured on the nano scale (Maharana et al. 147). Without considering the effect of creating new materials, it is possible to develop materials which have incompatible atoms. If this technology can be used to create new cells and cure illnesses, then there is a possibility of developing alternate human beings with an altered state. In other words, the world may think towards having a nanobiotechnology-engineered race in establishing a super-genius class of people. Because of its high cost, only a few individuals will possess the human engineering power.
Another disadvantage of nanobiotechnology is its contribution to the proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear threats. With this technology, these armaments have become more accessible and highly lethal. As a result, numerous unauthorized bodies and individuals can own nuclear weapons and cause mass destruction of property and massacre (Yanful 67).
Davies, Clarence. Oversight of Next Generation Nanotechnology. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholar, 2009. Web.
De Villiers, Melgardt., Aramwit, Pornanong, and Kwon Glen. Nanotechnology in drug delivery. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. Print.
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Hlupić, Filip. Introduction to Nanoscience; Why nano? University Of Zagrebu, 2011. Web.
Karkare. Nanotechnology: Fundamentals And Applications. London: I. K. International Pvt Ltd, 2008. Print.
Maharana et al. “Nanobiotechnology: A voyage to future?” Veterinary World 3.3 (2010): 145-147. Print.
Yanful, Ernest. Appropriate technologies for environmental protection in the developing world: selected papers from ERTEP 2007, Ghana, Africa. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. Print.